Python | dir () function

| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

👻 Check our latest review to choose the best laptop for Machine Learning engineers and Deep learning tasks!

Syntax :

 dir ({object}) 

Parameters :

  object   [optional] : Takes object name 

Returns:

dir () tries to return a valid list of attributes of the object it is called upon. Also, dir () function behaves rather differently with different type of objects, as it aims to produce the most relevant one, rather than the complete information.

  • For Class Objects, it returns a list of names of all the valid attributes and base attributes as well.
  • For Modules / Library objects, it tries to return a list of names of all the attributes, contained in that module.
  • If no parameters are passed it returns a list of names in the current local scope.

Code # 1: with and without importing external libraries.

# Python3 code to demonstrate dir ()
# when no parameters are passed


# Please note that we have not imported any modules

print ( dir ())


# Now let’s import two modules

import random

import math


# return module names added to
# local namespace including all
# existing as earlier

print ( dir ())

Exit:

 [’__builtins__’,’ __cached__’, ’__doc__’,’ __file__’, ’__loader__’,’ __name__’, ’__package__’,’ __spec__’] [ ’__builti ns__’, ’__cached__’,’ __doc__’, ’__file__’,’ __loader__’, ’__name__’,’ __package__’, ’__spec__’,’ math’, ’random’] 

Code # 2:

# Python3 code to demonstrate the dir () function
# when a module object is passed as a parameter.


# import a random module

import random


# List of printouts containing names
# attributes in a random function

print ( "The contents of random library are ::" )


# module The object is passed as a parameter

print ( dir (random))

Output:

 The contents of random library are :: [’BPF’,’ LOG4’, ’NV_MAGICCONST’,’ RECIP_BPF’, ’Random’,’ SG_MAGICCONST’, ’SystemRandom’, ’TWOPI’,’ _BuiltinMethodType’, ’_MethodType’,’ _Sequence’, ’_Set’,’ __all__’, ’__builtins__’,’ __cached__’, ’__doc__’,’ __file__’, ’__loader__’,’ __name__age__age ’,’ __spec__’, ’_acos’,’ _ceil’, ’_cos’,’ _e’, ’_exp’,’ _inst’, ’_log’,’ _pi’, ’_random’,’ _sha512’, ’_sin’, ’_sqrt’,’ _test’, ’_test_generator’,’ _urandom’, ’_warn’,’ betavariate’, ’choice’,’ expovariate’, ’gammavariate’,’ gauss’, ’getrandbits’,’ getstate’, ’lognormvariate ’,’ normalvariate’, ’paretovariate’,’ randint’, ’random’,’ randrange’, ’samp le’, ’seed’,’ setstate’, ’shuffle’,’ triangular’, ’uniform’,’ vonmisesvariate’, ’weibullvariate’] 

Code # 3: Object passed as parameters.

# When the list object is passed as
# parameters for the dir function ()


# List containing
# some random values ‚Äã‚Äã

geeks = [ "pythonengineering" , " gfg " , " Computer Science " ,

"Data Structures" , " Algorithms " ]


# dir () will also list the shared
# dictionary attributes

d = {} # empty dictionary


# dir () will return all available
# list of methods in the current local scope

print ( dir (geeks))


# Call dir () with a dictionary
# name & quot; d & quot; as a parameter. Return all
# available dict methods in
# current local scope

print ( dir (d))

Output:

 [’__add__’,’ __class__’, ’__contains__’,’ __delattr__’, ’__delitem__’,’ __dir__’, ’__doc__’,’ __eq__’, ’__format__’,’ __ge__’, ’__getattribute__’,’ __getitem__’, ’__gt__’,’ __hash__’, ’__iadd__’,’ __imul__’, ’__init__’,’ __iter__’, ’__le__’,’ __len__’, ’__lt__’,’ __mul__’, ’__lt__’ ’,’ __new__’, ’__reduce__’,’ __reduce_ex__’, ’__repr__’,’ __reversed__’, ’__rmul__’,’ __setattr__’, ’__setitem__’,’ __sizeof__’, ’__’str__’,’ __subclassho, ’__subclassho ’clear’,’ copy’, ’count’,’ extend’, ’index’,’ insert’, ’pop’,’ remove’, ’reverse’,’ sort’] [’__class__’,’ __contains__’, ’ __delattr__’, ’__delitem__’,’ __dir__’, ’__doc__’,’ __eq__’, ’__format__’, ’__ge__’,’ __getattribute__’, ’__getitem__’,’ __gt__’, ’__hash__’,’ __init__’, ’__iter__’,’ __le__’, ’__len__’,’ __lt__’, ’__ne__’,’ __new__’, ’__reduce ’,’ __reduce_ex__’, ’__repr__’,’ __setattr__’, ’__setitem__’,’ __sizeof__’, ’__str__’,’ __subclasshook__’, ’clear’,’ copy’, ’fromkeys’,’ get’, ’items’, ’keys’,’ pop’, ’popitem’,’ setdefault’, ’update’,’ values’] 

Code # 4: User defined — A class object with an available __dir () __ method is passed as a parameter.

# Python3 demonstration program
# of dir () when user-defined objects
# parameters passed.


# Create a simple class with __dir () __
# method to demonstrate this works

class Supermarket:

# The __dir () ___ function that lists everything

# basic attributes to be used.

def __dir __ ( self ):

return [ ’customer_name’ , ’ product’ ,

’quantity’ , ’ price’ , ’date’ ]


# custom supermarket class object

my_cart = Supermarket ()


# dir () method enumeration

print ( dir (my_cart))

Output:

 [’customer_name’ , ’date’,’ price’, ’product’,’ quantity’] 

Applications:

  • Dir () has its own set of uses. It is typically used for debugging in simple day-to-day programs and even in large projects run by a development team. The dir () ability to list all the attributes of a passed parameter is really useful when handling a large number of classes and functions separately.
  • The dir () function can also list all the available attributes for a module / list / dictionary. Thus, it also gives us information about the operations we can perform on an available list or module, which can be very useful when there is little information about the module. It also helps you learn new modules faster.

👻 Read also: what is the best laptop for engineering students?

Python | dir () function __del__: Questions

How can I make a time delay in Python?

5 answers

I would like to know how to put a time delay in a Python script.

2973

Answer #1

import time
time.sleep(5)   # Delays for 5 seconds. You can also use a float value.

Here is another example where something is run approximately once a minute:

import time
while True:
    print("This prints once a minute.")
    time.sleep(60) # Delay for 1 minute (60 seconds).

2973

Answer #2

You can use the sleep() function in the time module. It can take a float argument for sub-second resolution.

from time import sleep
sleep(0.1) # Time in seconds

Python | dir () function __del__: Questions

How to delete a file or folder in Python?

5 answers

How do I delete a file or folder in Python?

2639

Answer #1


Path objects from the Python 3.4+ pathlib module also expose these instance methods:

We hope this article has helped you to resolve the problem. Apart from Python | dir () function, check other __del__-related topics.

Want to excel in Python? See our review of the best Python online courses 2023. If you are interested in Data Science, check also how to learn programming in R.

By the way, this material is also available in other languages:



Ken Robinson

Abu Dhabi | 2023-03-22

Simply put and clear. Thank you for sharing. Python | dir () function and other issues with pty Python module was always my weak point 😁. I just hope that will not emerge anymore

Oliver Danburry

Shanghai | 2023-03-22

sep is always a bit confusing 😭 Python | dir () function is not the only problem I encountered. I just hope that will not emerge anymore

Boris Schteiner

New York | 2023-03-22

enum Python module is always a bit confusing 😭 Python | dir () function is not the only problem I encountered. I am just not quite sure it is the best method

Shop

Gifts for programmers

Learn programming in R: courses

$FREE
Gifts for programmers

Best Python online courses for 2022

$FREE
Gifts for programmers

Best laptop for Fortnite

$399+
Gifts for programmers

Best laptop for Excel

$
Gifts for programmers

Best laptop for Solidworks

$399+
Gifts for programmers

Best laptop for Roblox

$399+
Gifts for programmers

Best computer for crypto mining

$499+
Gifts for programmers

Best laptop for Sims 4

$

Latest questions

PythonStackOverflow

Common xlabel/ylabel for matplotlib subplots

1947 answers

PythonStackOverflow

Check if one list is a subset of another in Python

1173 answers

PythonStackOverflow

How to specify multiple return types using type-hints

1002 answers

PythonStackOverflow

Printing words vertically in Python

909 answers

PythonStackOverflow

Python Extract words from a given string

798 answers

PythonStackOverflow

Why do I get "Pickle - EOFError: Ran out of input" reading an empty file?

606 answers

PythonStackOverflow

Python os.path.join () method

384 answers

PythonStackOverflow

Flake8: Ignore specific warning for entire file

360 answers


Wiki

Python | How to copy data from one Excel sheet to another

Common xlabel/ylabel for matplotlib subplots

Check if one list is a subset of another in Python

How to specify multiple return types using type-hints

Printing words vertically in Python

Python Extract words from a given string

Cyclic redundancy check in Python

Finding mean, median, mode in Python without libraries

Python add suffix / add prefix to strings in a list

Why do I get "Pickle - EOFError: Ran out of input" reading an empty file?

Python - Move item to the end of the list

Python - Print list vertically