Javascript This

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Understanding This JavaScript Keyword

If you want to become a programmer, no matter what specific field you choose, you will definitely have to deal with JavaScript. It has evolved from humble beginnings into a true powerhouse. Now it covers frontends, backends, mobile devices, games, desktop applications, and even machine learning !

Now, before you become a JavaScript master and develop, you need to learn the basics . The keyword this should probably be number one on your learning list.

What is doing?

Simply put, this is a pointer, a way to refer to what object called a function or method in JavaScript code. Just put, this is what is to the left of the dot

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This has two main uses. Let them explore with a few examples.

Building objects with this

The above code produces the following output:

 HdZ8KT6WIQorNxAykqXF37AjSU5n5GBPIeyft87 KFpUfmNGCwi0WEKYvtCB1d9usWt9gnoC8ww9nBMzQ6zPc8Qsc9 UdyDo6rPPxIzVUFG0lvSRFu3sgQv EtvT1m5VwzFZkdHb

here, we have defined a constructor where we are subject of books that take a title, author, and genre as parameters.

a constructor function is a "project" function object from which we can create objects with the given name (book in our case).

We have created an object called myBook and successfully passed the required parameters (called arguments when we call or invoke a function, as opposed to parameters when we define).

Finally, we saved myBook and retrieve the object with its corresponding properties. In this way, each new book object, we create gets transmitted values that are his assigned

Access to properties with this .

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Here we have defined a child variable called which owns an object with name and property age, and a function to introduce.

The function records an introductory sentence using the properties of the object, accessed with ce .wanted_property.

This and JavaScript scope

By default, when used in global scope, that is, not in a defined function or object , this will refer to the global object. In the browser, the window is the global object.

When you declare primitive data (strings, numbers, booleans ...), an object or a function in JavaScript, they are all attached to the global object (window).

Anything you write "in the open‚", you can read it as if there was a window. written before. Let’s take a look at this code snippet:

First , we define a function called returnThis in global scope that returns the value of this. We therefore call by writing returnThis ().

Since it has global scope, we can see it as window.returnThis (), which return what’s left of the point.

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object functions aka methods

If we now define a new object that has the same function in its interior (called method object) and call it once more, we are going to get this object (indicated by the braces) returned.

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the Gotcha of this and its three solutions

If a function is not directly related to an object, the this in the function will refer to the global object.

Eseguiamo questo nel browser e vediamo cosa otteniamo:

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definito a oggetto che con una funzione restituisce questo di nuovo e un’altra che restituisce una funzione interna, che quindi restituisce questo.

Quando vogliamo chiamare la funzione indirettaNestedFunction, prima scriviamo () una volta per chiamare the funzione esterna che restituisce the interno.

Poi chiamiamo the interno con un altro () che restituisce la window.

This is one of the mysterious behaviors of JavaScript and gives rise to some unexpected and unwanted surprises.

Fortunately, there are ways to fix this problem. The first one is closing href = "/ javascript-closure/">, which is the way it was done before ES6. The second way is to use the arrow functions , and the third is to use the bind method, which is closely related to the call and apply of methods.

# 1 Resolution this with closures

a closure is a persistent memory bank, which means that the variable does not disappear when the finishes of runtime function . It is created by the JavaScript engine when a nested function references a variable defined in an external function so that it can be accessed even when the external execution functions finishes . Here’s what our this example looks like:

O4GbqSXJ POMJIcI CENugweH2RZznl9MpRUuz FfUplXjsm UWrgXqHMH 7mJCrFUFmInJoidY4VWOqH42bGUeHbqfCHVAc S06jt20eOixDxOrgD33vq <this variable, we have defined an object. Since the closing function is directly related to the <object that contains it, the value of <em>this</em> now refers to it , included in our function. em> this</em> usually refers to the window object Since we used an access closure <em>ce</em> of the container function, we are able to preserve the object calling its value . </p> <style div = ?

# 2 Solve this with arrow functions

The second solution probably uses one of the best features that come with ES6, which are the arrow functions .

Arrow functions represent a more concise syntax for write functions , and they search a higher level as part of the search for this, in the sense of the function in which it is contained

so, if we define our object like this .

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Our object has an outer function which, when called, returns the inner regular function.

We then call regularFunction and return the innermost function of the arrow.

, when called, it returns the window object .

An arrow function searches only level 1 scope. Since the containing regularFunction is not directly related to our object, the window is returned.

If, we nest an arrow function inside an arrow function, in a regular function, will get the expected result, which is the actual container object.

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object and, therefore, the object is what is returned as this .

# 3 Solve this with the bind method

Finally, the third solution uses the bind method. the binding method is used to explicitly declare what this need Gets the object passed an argument and associates it with this keyword of the function.

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In this example, we link chained to the function that normally returns the window object this . Pass it the object we want to refer to as this as an argument and our problem is solved.

This is not difficult when you understand JavaScript

Phew! It was a great dive. Now you may be wondering , why all the hassle and confusion with this

The reason is that, unlike everything else in JavaScript, this < / em> it is dynamic so coveted. This means that the JavaScript engine defines what what represents at runtime when the code is executed, observing where it came from and who is calling it.

At theinverse, everything else in JavaScript is lexically discovered, meaning that its value is set when the variable is set, when code is written.

Thanks to this, we can create a "project" object once and dynamically create objects with different property values ‚Äã‚Äãas we have seen in our example of book.

We can also create methods that expose and manipulate the properties of an object with this .wanted_property.

We can work around the quirks of JavaScript and control its behavior with confidence and the desired results.

Now that you understand this in JavaScript, along with a few other fundamental concepts, you can experiment, practice and take the safest action to or control JavaScript.

You that

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Javascript This around: Questions

Removing white space around a saved image in matplotlib

2 answers

I need to take an image and save it after some process. The figure looks fine when I display it, but after saving the figure, I got some white space around the saved image. I have tried the "tight" option for savefig method, did not work either. The code:

  import matplotlib.image as mpimg
  import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

  fig = plt.figure(1)
  img = mpimg.imread(path)

  extent = ax.get_window_extent().transformed(fig.dpi_scale_trans.inverted())
  plt.savefig("1.png", bbox_inches=extent)


I am trying to draw a basic graph by using NetworkX on a figure and save it. I realized that without a graph it works, but when added a graph I get white space around the saved image;

import matplotlib.image as mpimg
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import networkx as nx

G = nx.Graph()
pos = {1:[100,120], 2:[200,300], 3:[50,75]}

fig = plt.figure(1)
img = mpimg.imread("image.jpg")

nx.draw(G, pos=pos)

extent = ax.get_window_extent().transformed(fig.dpi_scale_trans.inverted())
plt.savefig("1.png", bbox_inches = extent)


Answer #1

You can remove the white space padding by setting bbox_inches="tight" in savefig:


You"ll have to put the argument to bbox_inches as a string, perhaps this is why it didn"t work earlier for you.

Possible duplicates:

Matplotlib plots: removing axis, legends and white spaces

How to set the margins for a matplotlib figure?

Reduce left and right margins in matplotlib plot


Answer #2

I cannot claim I know exactly why or how my “solution” works, but this is what I had to do when I wanted to plot the outline of a couple of aerofoil sections — without white margins — to a PDF file. (Note that I used matplotlib inside an IPython notebook, with the -pylab flag.)

plt.subplots_adjust(top = 1, bottom = 0, right = 1, left = 0, 
            hspace = 0, wspace = 0)
plt.savefig("filename.pdf", bbox_inches = "tight",
    pad_inches = 0)

I have tried to deactivate different parts of this, but this always lead to a white margin somewhere. You may even have modify this to keep fat lines near the limits of the figure from being shaved by the lack of margins.


How do I install pip on macOS or OS X?

5 answers

I spent most of the day yesterday searching for a clear answer for installing pip (package manager for Python). I can"t find a good solution.

How do I install it?


Answer #1

UPDATE (Jan 2019):

easy_install has been deprecated. Please use instead.

Old answer:

easy_install pip

If you need admin privileges to run this, try:

sudo easy_install pip


Answer #2

⚡️ TL;DR — One line solution.

All you have to do is:

sudo easy_install pip

2019: ⚠️easy_install has been deprecated. Check Method #2 below for preferred installation!


⚡️ OK, I read the solutions given above, but here"s an EASY solution to install pip.

MacOS comes with Python installed. But to make sure that you have Python installed open the terminal and run the following command.

python --version

If this command returns a version number that means Python exists. Which also means that you already have access to easy_install considering you are using macOS/OSX.

ℹ️ Now, all you have to do is run the following command.

sudo easy_install pip

After that, pip will be installed and you"ll be able to use it for installing other packages.

Let me know if you have any problems installing pip this way.


P.S. I ended up blogging a post about it. QuickTip: How Do I Install pip on macOS or OS X?

✅ UPDATE (Jan 2019): METHOD #2: Two line solution —

easy_install has been deprecated. Please use instead.

First of all download the get-pip file

curl -o

Now run this file to install pip


That should do it.

Another gif you said? Here ya go!


Answer #3

You can install it through Homebrew on OS X. Why would you install Python with Homebrew?

The version of Python that ships with OS X is great for learning but it’s not good for development. The version shipped with OS X may be out of date from the official current Python release, which is considered the stable production version. (source)

Homebrew is something of a package manager for OS X. Find more details on the Homebrew page. Once Homebrew is installed, run the following to install the latest Python, Pip & Setuptools:

brew install python


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