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The 10 best frameworks for Python web development

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Python is an object-oriented, interpreted and interactive programming language. It is easy to learn and easy to understand and has won over many developers. It is one of the fastest growing languages. According to the popularity index of programming languages, Python is at the top position among the most used languages in the world. This means that the demand for Python developers will not decrease anytime soon.

Another consequence of the language's leading position is the growing popularity of frameworks based on it. Frameworks exist to simplify a programmer's life. They help to save time because they allow the developer to focus on the logic of the application rather than on routine tasks.

Many modern technology companies like Google, Netflix, choose Python frameworks for web development. And they have plenty to choose from.

Django

Фреймворки django

Django is an open-source framework that allows developers to build virtually any level of web application. It ranks among the best Python frameworks and is deservedly popular.

A huge set of add-on libraries are available for Django and the support of a huge community of developers, making development much easier and faster.

Key features of Django:

  • Availability of its own ORM (Object-Relational Mapping);
  • Built-in administrative interface (in simple terms - admin panel);
  • templating;
  • library of work with the forms;
  • system of caching and internalization;
  • authorization and authentication system.

CherryPy

Фреймворк CherryPy

The CherryPy framework, now over a decade old, has established itself as an exceptionally fast and stable product. One of the original goals of project founder Remy Delon was to make CherryPy as "pythonic style" as possible. This allowed developers to use the framework as a regular Python module and not have to think about the peculiarities of web programming. They can create web applications in much the same way as they create any other object-oriented Python program.

CherryPy can act as a standalone web server or run another server application.

Key features of CherryPy:

  • A reliable HTTP/1.1 compliant multithreaded web server;
  • Ability to run different HTTP servers (e.g. on multiple ports) at the same time;
  • built-in tools for handling sessions, caching, authentication, static content;
  • powerful configuration system;
  • built-in profiling and testing support;
  • Support for Python 2.7+, 3.5+, PyPy, Jython.

Pyramid

Фреймворк Pyramid

The increasingly popular Pyramid framework is versatile. It can be used for projects of any complexity. It has earned high marks among Python developers for its transparency and proven robustness. It is used by technology giants such as Mozilla, Yelp, Dropbox, and SurveyMonkey.

Megaframeworks tend to make decisions for the developer when it comes to the architecture of the application or the choice of components such as an ORM. But if your needs don't match their point of view, you'll end up fighting their choices.

Microframeworks, on the other hand, don't impose any decisions, which in some cases plays to your advantage. However, when your application grows and needs new components, you are left to your own devices to choose.

In both cases, the focus is on getting the project started: either there is too much or too little. Pyramid is the golden mean. It can be a micro-framework at the start of your project, but as you grow, it provides everything you need at each stage to make your project a success.

The key features of Pyramid are:

  • The ability to write an application in a single file;
  • Query service for static files;
  • A debugging dashboard for debugging the application directly in the browser;
  • Extensible interchangeable templates;
  • built-in internationalisation;
  • HTTP caching; native session support;
  • transaction management, including when working with several databases at once;
  • Flexible, extensible authentication and authorisation;
  • automate repetitive configuration.

TurboGears

Фреймворк TurboGears

TurboGears is another web application development framework written in Python. During its creation, inspiration was drawn from Django and Rails. These frameworks have a number of limitations and drawbacks, and TurboGears has tried to address these issues.

The main difference between this framework and Django is not reinventing the wheel in the form of its own ORM, but using standard and popular libraries such as Pylons, SQLAlchemy, Genshi and Repoze as main components.

Organizations that have used TurboGears include Bisque, ShowMeDo, and SourceForge.

The key features of TurboGears are:

  • Support for multiple databases;
  • support for multiple JavaScript libraries;
  • support for multiple data exchange formats;
  • support for horizontal scaling of data by sharding;
  • Expandability with standard WSGI components.

Web2Py

Фреймворк по веб-разработке на Python Web2Py

The Web2py framework was originally conceived as a learning tool with a focus on usability and ease of use. For example, there are no project configuration files. The architecture of the framework itself is designed along the lines of solutions such as Ruby on Rails and Django.

The entire process of development, debugging, testing, and administration of the remote database can be organized without any third-party tools through its own web interface, which in turn is also a web2py application.

Additionally, each application is provided with an automatically generated Django-like administration interface.

Key features of Web2py:

  • integrated web development environment;
  • Embedded components for all core functions;
  • mechanisms for authentication and access control by role;
  • jQuery support for Ajax and UI effects;
  • Internationalisation support;
  • automatic error logging along with context.

Flask

Фреймворк Flask

The Flask framework has a small source code base size, which is why it is called a microframework. However, this does not mean that it has fewer features than Django. By default, it only includes a request handler and a template engine, and a simple Flask application can consist of just a few lines. The developers of this framework consciously wanted to keep the core simple, but extensible.

Nevertheless, with Flask you can implement almost any task: from a simple one-page website to a serious project with authorization, authentication and other features. Flask is suitable for tasks that imply flexibility in the choice of components. It's up to the developer to decide what works best for them.

Flask is at the core of major services such as Reddit, Netflix, Pinterest, Twilio and taxi aggregator Lyft.

Flask's key features are:

  • Built-in development server and debugger;
  • RESTful request dispatch;
  • Built-in support for unit testing;
  • Use of Jinja2 templating engine;
  • 100% WSGI 1.0 compatibility;
  • numerous community-provided extensions.

Bottle

Фреймворк по веб-разработке на Python Bottle

Bottle is another simple and lightweight microframework. It is distributed as a single-file module and has no dependencies other than the standard Python library. It was originally developed solely for building web APIs.

Out-of-the-box functionality includes a built-in web server, templating, request routing, and proprietary tools and utilities. Bottle lets you build simple applications for personal use. And it's also a good example for learning frameworks as well as rapid prototyping. For example, Netflix has used Bottle to build its web interfaces.

Bottle's key features are:

  • A fast, built-in pythonic-style templating engine;
  • built-in web development server;
  • easy feature request routing mechanism with support for both static and dynamic addresses;
  • Easy access to cookies, file uploads, request headers and other metadata.

Tornado

Фреймворк по веб-разработке Python Tornado

Tornado is an extensible asynchronous web server and framework that solves the C10k problem. That is, when properly configured, it can handle 10,000+ simultaneous connections. This makes it a great tool for building applications that require super-performance when handling I/O operations and supporting a huge number of simultaneous connections.

The framework was originally created for use in the FriendFeed project, which was acquired by Facebook in 2009, after which the Tornado source code was made public.

The key features of Tornado are:

  • Asynchronous mode of operation;
  • Use of web-based sockets;
  • support for third-party authentication and authorization schemes.

web.py

Фреймворк web.py

Web.py is a minimalist framework that aims to implement simple web applications in Python. Those developers who believe that new websites should be built from scratch will be charmed by this fast and lightweight framework. Web.py provides a simple and efficient development process without the use of a blueprint architecture.

Web.py makes the web development process as unbiased as possible and doesn't get in the way of developers' ideas. The reason for simplifying the development process is that there are times when you don't need to use the MVC design pattern or create a mess of HTML, CSS, JavaScript and PHP in one file.

Key features of Web.py:

  • built-in web development server;
  • built-in debugger;
  • built-in template engine;
  • built-in database package;
  • Forms package;
  • WSGI compatibility.

FastAPI

Фреймворк FastAPI

FastAPI is an asynchronous web framework that was born at the end of 2018. It is designed for fast development of API applications and is based on standard Python type annotation.

The word 'fast' in the name indicates not only fast application development, but also the performance of the framework. According to the documentation, according to independent tests, FastAPI is as fast as applications written in NodeJS or Go, and it is also one of the fastest frameworks in Python.

FastAPI was initially built as asynchronous framework, unlike Django and Flask which had a long history of being synchronous and only started to adopt asynchronous framework in recent years.

FastAPI is usually used for API development, without a frontend, but it can be complemented with standard templating-based templates, such as Jinja2, which is used in Flask, if desired.

Key features of FastAPI:

  • Very high performance, on par with NodeJS and Go;
  • built-in Swagger-based documentation;
  • use of web sockets;
  • Easy integration with databases;
  • based on and fully compatible with OpenAPI standards.

What to choose?

There are a huge number of frameworks for web development in Python. Here we've compiled the most popular and in-demand ones, but each has pros and cons. Choosing a particular solution depends on the developer's goals and personal preferences. Each time, it is necessary to evaluate the chosen framework for its compliance with the requirements of the specific task.

The above list of free and open-source Python frameworks is up to date as of 2022, but which one is best for your next project is up to you.

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