** Frozen Sets ** Frozen Sets are immutable objects that only support methods and operators that produce results without affecting the frozen set or sets to which they apply.

` ` |

Exit:

Normal Set set ([’a’,’ c’, ’b’,’ d’]) Frozen Set frozenset ([’e’,’ g’, ’ f’])

**Methods for Sets**

** 1. Add (x) method: ** adds an x element to install if it is not already in the set.

people = {"Jay", "Idrish", "Archil"} people.add ( "Daxit")

-" This will add Daxit to the set of people.

2. ** union (s) **: Returns the union of two sets. Using & # 39; | & # 39; The operator between 2 sets is the same as writing set1.union (set2)

people = {"Jay", "Idrish", "Archil"} vampires = {"Karan", "Arjun"} population = people.union (vampires)

OR

population = people | vampires

-" The population set will have both human and vampire components

3. ** The intersect (s): ** method returns the intersection of two sets. The & # 39; & amp; & # 39; operator can also be used in this case.

victims = people.intersection (vampires)

-" The set of victims will contain a common element of humans and vampires

** 4. Difference method (s): ** Returns a set containing all the elements of the calling set, but not the second set. We can use the "-" operator here.

safe = people.difference (vampires)

OR

safe = people - vampires

-" The safe will contain all the elements that humans have, but not vampires.

** 5. clear () Method: ** clears the entire set.

victims.clear ()

-" Cleans up a collection of victims

However, Python collections have two main pitfalls:

- Collection does not support elements in any particular order.
- Only instances of immutable types can be added to the Python collection.

**Set operators**

Sets and frozen sets support the following operators :

enter s # content validation

key not in s # non-save validation

s1 == s2 # s1 is equivalent to s2

s1 ! = s2 # s1 is not equivalent to s2

s1 = s2 # s1 is a superset of s2

s1" s2 # s1 — correct superset of s2

s1 | s2 # combining s1 and s2

s1 & amp; s2 # intersection of s1 and s2

s1 — s2 # a set of elements in s1, but not s2

s1 ˆ s2 # a set of elements in exactly one of s1 or s2

A code snippet to illustrate all Set operations in Python

` `

` ` ` # Python program to demonstrate how it works # from `

` # Install in Python `

` # Create two sets `

` set1 `

` = `

` set `

` () `

` set2 `

` = `

` set `

` () `

` # Adding elements to set1 `

` for `

` i `

` in `

range ` (`

` 1 `

`, `

` 6 `

`): `

` set1.add (i) `

` # Adding elements in set2 `

` for `

` i `

` in `

` range `

` (`

` 3 `

` , `

` 8 `

`): `

` set2.add (i) `

` print `

` (`

` "Set1 =" `

`, set1) `

` print `

` (`

"Set2 =" `, set2) `

` print `

` (`

` "" `

`) `

` # Union of set1 and set2 `

` set3 `

` = `

` set1 | set2 `

` # set1.union (set2) `

` print `

` (`

`" Union of Set1 & amp; Set2: Set3 = "`

`, set3) `

` # Intersection of set1 and set2 `

` set4 `

` = `

` set1 & amp; set2 `

` # set1.intersection (set2) `

` print `

` (`

`" Intersection of Set1 & amp; Set2: Set4 = "`

`, set4) `

` print `

` (`

` "" `

` ) `

` # Check the relationship between set3 and set4 `

` if `

` set3" set4: `

` # set3.issuperset (set4) `

` print `

` (`

`" Set3 is superset of Set4 "`

`) `

` elif `

` set3 & lt; set4: `

` # set3.issubset (set4) `

` print `

` (`

`" Set3 is subset of Set4 "`

`) `

` else `

`: `

` # set3 == set4 `

` print `

` (`

` "Set3 is same as Set4" `

`) `

` `

` # display the relationship between set4 and set3 `

` if `

` set4 & lt; set3: `

` # set4.issubset (set3) `

` print `

` (`

`" Set4 is subset of Set3 "`

`) `

` print `

` (`

` "" `

`) `

` # difference between set3 and set4 `

` set5 `

` = `

` set3 `

` - `

` set4 `

` print `

` (`

` "Elements in Set3 and not in Set4: Set5 =" `

`, set5) `

` print `

` (`

`" "`

`) `

` `

` # checkv if set4 and set5 are disjoint sets `

` if `

` set4.isdisjoint (set5): `

` print `

` (`

`" Set4 and Set5 have nothing in common " `

`) `

` # Removing all values from set5 `

` set5.clear () `

` print `

` (`

` "After applying clear on sets Set5:" `

`) `

` print `

` (`

` "Set5 =" `

`, set5) `

` `

Exit:

(’Set1 =’, set ([1, 2, 3, 4, 5])) (’Set2 =’, set ([3, 4, 5, 6, 7])) (’Union of Set1 & amp; Set2: Set3 = ’, set ([1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7])) (’ Intersection of Set1 & amp; Set2: Set4 = ’, set ([3, 4, 5])) Set3 is superset of Set4 Set4 is subset of Set3 (’Elements in Set3 and not in Set4: Set5 =’, set ([1, 2, 6, 7])) Set4 and Set5 have nothing in common After applying clear on sets Set5: (’Set5 =’, set ([]))

**
**

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