Ошибка типа Python: требуется объект, подобный байтам, а не str Решение

–û—à–∏–±–∫–∏ —Ç–∏–ø–∞ –≤–æ–∑–Ω–∏–∫–∞—é—Ç –ø–æ—Å—Ç–æ—è–Ω–Ω–æ –≤ Python . –≠—Ç–æ—Ç —Ç–∏–ø –æ—à–∏–±–∫–∏ –≤–æ–∑–Ω–∏–∫–∞–µ—Ç, –∫–æ–≥–¥–∞ –≤—ã –ø—ã—Ç–∞–µ—Ç–µ—Å—å –ø—Ä–∏–º–µ–Ω–∏—Ç—å —Ñ—É–Ω–∫—Ü–∏—é –∫ –∑–Ω–∞—á–µ–Ω–∏—é, –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä–æ–µ –Ω–µ –ø–æ–¥–¥–µ—Ä–∂–∏–≤–∞–µ—Ç —ç—Ç—É —Ñ—É–Ω–∫—Ü–∏—é. –ù–∞–ø—Ä–∏–º–µ—Ä, –ø–æ–ø—ã—Ç–∫–∞ –ø–µ—Ä–µ–±–æ—Ä–∞ —á–∏—Å–ª–∞ –≤—ã–∑—ã–≤–∞–µ—Ç –æ—à–∏–±–∫—É TypeError, –ø–æ—Ç–æ–º—É —á—Ç–æ –≤—ã –Ω–µ –º–æ–∂–µ—Ç–µ –ø–µ—Ä–µ–±–∏—Ä–∞—Ç—å —á–∏—Å–ª–æ.

–í —ç—Ç–æ–º —Ä—É–∫–æ–≤–æ–¥—Å—Ç–≤–µ –º—ã –ø–æ–≥–æ–≤–æ—Ä–∏–º –æ —Ç–æ–º, –∫–∞–∫ —Ä–µ—à–∏—Ç—å –æ—à–∏–±–∫—É " typeerror: a –¢—Ä–µ–±—É–µ—Ç—Å—è –æ–±—ä–µ–∫—Ç, –ø–æ—Ö–æ–∂–∏–π –Ω–∞ –±–∞–π—Ç—ã, –∞ –Ω–µ " str " " –æ—à–∏–±–∫–∞. –ú—ã —Ä–∞—Å—Å–º–æ—Ç—Ä–∏–º, —á—Ç–æ –æ–∑–Ω–∞—á–∞–µ—Ç —ç—Ç–∞ –æ—à–∏–±–∫–∞ –∏ –ø–æ—á–µ–º—É –æ–Ω–∞ –≤–æ–∑–Ω–∏–∫–∞–µ—Ç. –ú—ã —Ç–∞–∫–∂–µ –ø—Ä–µ–¥–ª–æ–∂–∏–º —Ä–µ—à–µ–Ω–∏–µ, –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä–æ–µ –ø–æ–º–æ–∂–µ—Ç –≤–∞–º –ø—Ä–µ–æ–¥–æ–ª–µ—Ç—å —ç—Ç—É –æ—à–∏–±–∫—É. –î–∞–≤–∞–π—Ç–µ –Ω–∞—á–Ω–µ–º!

–ü—Ä–æ–±–ª–µ–º–∞: –æ—à–∏–±–∫–∞ —Ç–∏–ø–∞: —Ç—Ä–µ–±—É–µ—Ç—Å—è –æ–±—ä–µ–∫—Ç, –ø–æ–¥–æ–±–Ω—ã–π –±–∞–π—Ç–∞–º, –∞ –Ω–µ " str "

–î–∞–≤–∞–π—Ç–µ –Ω–∞—á–Ω–µ–º —Å –∞–Ω–∞–ª–∏–∑–∞ –Ω–∞—à–µ–≥–æ —Å–æ–æ–±—â–µ–Ω–∏—è –æ–± –æ—à–∏–±–∫–µ:

–≠—Ç–æ —Å–æ–æ–±—â–µ–Ω–∏–µ –æ–± –æ—à–∏–±–∫–µ –¥–∞–µ—Ç –Ω–∞–º –¥–≤–µ –≤–∞–∂–Ω—ã–µ —á–∞—Å—Ç–∏ –∏–Ω—Ñ–æ—Ä–º–∞—Ü–∏–∏. TypeError —Å–æ–æ–±—â–∞–µ—Ç –Ω–∞–º, —á—Ç–æ –º—ã " –ø—Ä–∏–º–µ–Ω—è–µ–º —Ñ—É–Ω–∫—Ü–∏—é –∫ –∑–Ω–∞—á–µ–Ω–∏—é –Ω–µ–ø—Ä–∞–≤–∏–ª—å–Ω–æ–≥–æ —Ç–∏–ø–∞.

–°–æ–æ–±—â–µ–Ω–∏–µ –æ–± –æ—à–∏–±–∫–µ —Å–æ–æ–±—â–∞–µ—Ç –Ω–∞–º, —á—Ç–æ –º—ã " –ø–æ–≤—Ç–æ—Ä–Ω–æ –æ–±—Ä–∞–±–∞—Ç—ã–≤–∞–µ–º –∑–Ω–∞—á–µ–Ω–∏–µ –∫–∞–∫ string , –∞ –Ω–µ –±–∞–π—Ç–æ–≤—ã–º –æ–±—ä–µ–∫—Ç–æ–º. –û–±—ä–µ–∫—Ç—ã, –ø–æ–¥–æ–±–Ω—ã–µ –±–∞–π—Ç–∞–º, - —ç—Ç–æ –æ–±—ä–µ–∫—Ç—ã, –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä—ã–µ —Ö—Ä–∞–Ω—è—Ç—Å—è —Å –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑–æ–≤–∞–Ω–∏–µ–º –±–∞–π—Ç–æ–≤–æ–≥–æ —Ç–∏–ø–∞ –¥–∞–Ω–Ω—ã—Ö. –û–±—ä–µ–∫—Ç—ã, –ø–æ–¥–æ–±–Ω—ã–µ –±–∞–π—Ç–∞–º, –Ω–µ —è–≤–ª—è—é—Ç—Å—è —Å—Ç—Ä–æ–∫–∞–º–∏, –ø–æ—ç—Ç–æ–º—É –∏–º–∏ –Ω–µ–ª—å–∑—è –º–∞–Ω–∏–ø—É–ª–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞—Ç—å –∫–∞–∫ —Å—Ç—Ä–æ–∫–∞–º–∏.

–ü—Ä–∞–∫—Ç–∏—á–µ—Å–∫–∏–π —Å—Ü–µ–Ω–∞—Ä–∏–π

–≠—Ç–∞ –æ—à–∏–±–∫–∞ –æ–±—ã—á–Ω–æ –≤–æ–∑–Ω–∏–∫–∞–µ—Ç, –∫–æ–≥–¥–∞ –≤—ã –æ—Ç–∫—Ä—ã–≤–∞–µ—Ç–µ —Ñ–∞–π–ª –∫–∞–∫ –¥–≤–æ–∏—á–Ω—ã–π —Ñ–∞–π–ª –≤–º–µ—Å—Ç–æ –≤ –≤–∏–¥–µ —Ç–µ–∫—Å—Ç–æ–≤–æ–≥–æ —Ñ–∞–π–ª–∞ .

–ù–µ—Ç –ª—É—á—à–µ–≥–æ —Å–ø–æ—Å–æ–±–∞ –∏—Å–ø—Ä–∞–≤–∏—Ç—å –æ—à–∏–±–∫—É, —á–µ–º –ø—Ä–æ—Å–º–æ—Ç—Ä–µ—Ç—å –ø—Ä–∏–º–µ—Ä —Ñ—Ä–∞–≥–º–µ–Ω—Ç –∫–æ–¥–∞ —Å —ç—Ç–æ–π –æ—à–∏–±–∫–æ–π. –ù–∏–∂–µ –ø—Ä–∏–≤–µ–¥–µ–Ω–∞ –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∞, –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä–∞—è –≤–æ—Å–ø—Ä–æ–∏–∑–≤–æ–¥–∏—Ç —ç—Ç—É –æ—à–∏–±–∫—É:

–≠—Ç–æ—Ç —Ñ—Ä–∞–≥–º–µ–Ω—Ç –∫–æ–¥–∞ –æ—Ç–∫—Ä—ã–≤–∞–µ—Ç —Ñ–∞–π–ª " recipes.txt " –∏ —Å—á–∏—Ç—ã–≤–∞–µ—Ç –µ–≥–æ —Å–æ–¥–µ—Ä–∂–∏–º–æ–µ –≤ –ø–µ—Ä–µ–º–µ–Ω–Ω—É—é –ø–æ–¥ –Ω–∞–∑–≤–∞–Ω–∏–µ–º " recipes & rdquo ;.

81% —É—á–∞—Å—Ç–Ω–∏–∫–æ–≤ –∑–∞—è–≤–∏–ª–∏, —á—Ç–æ –æ–Ω–∏ –±–æ–ª–µ–µ —É–≤–µ—Ä–µ–Ω—ã –≤ —Å–≤–æ–∏—Ö –ø–µ—Ä—Å–ø–µ–∫—Ç–∏–≤—ã —Ç—Ä—É–¥–æ—É—Å—Ç—Ä–æ–π—Å—Ç–≤–∞ –ø–æ—Å–ª–µ –±—É—Ç–∫–µ–º–ø–∞. –ü—Ä–æ–π–¥–∏—Ç–µ —É—á–µ–±–Ω—ã–π –∫—É—Ä—Å —É–∂–µ —Å–µ–≥–æ–¥–Ω—è.

–°—Ä–µ–¥–Ω–∏–π –≤—ã–ø—É—Å–∫–Ω–∏–∫ —É—á–µ–±–Ω–æ–≥–æ –ª–∞–≥–µ—Ä—è –ø–æ—Ç—Ä–∞—Ç–∏–ª –º–µ–Ω–µ–µ —à–µ—Å—Ç–∏ –º–µ—Å—è—Ü–µ–≤ –Ω–∞ –ø–µ—Ä–µ—Ö–æ–¥–Ω—É—é –∫–∞—Ä—å–µ—Ä—É, –æ—Ç –Ω–∞—á–∞–ª–∞ —É—á–µ–±–Ω–æ–≥–æ –ª–∞–≥–µ—Ä—è –¥–æ –ø–æ–∏—Å–∫–∞ —Å–≤–æ–µ–π –ø–µ—Ä–≤–æ–π —Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç—ã.

" recipes " –ø–µ—Ä–µ–º–µ–Ω–Ω–∞—è —Ö—Ä–∞–Ω–∏—Ç –ø–æ–≤—Ç–æ—Ä—è–µ–º—ã–π –æ–±—ä–µ–∫—Ç, —Å–æ—Å—Ç–æ—è—â–∏–π –∏–∑ –∫–∞–∂–¥–æ–π —Å—Ç—Ä–æ–∫–∏ –≤ —Ñ–∞–π–ª–µ " recipes.txt " —Ñ–∞–π–ª. –ó–∞—Ç–µ–º –º—ã –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑—É–µ–º —Ü–∏–∫–ª for –¥–ª—è –ø–µ—Ä–µ–±–æ—Ä–∞ –∫–∞–∂–¥–æ–≥–æ —Ä–µ—Ü–µ–ø—Ç–∞ –≤ —Å–ø–∏—Å–∫–µ.

–í —Ü–∏–∫–ª–µ for –º—ã –ø—Ä–æ–≤–µ—Ä—è–µ–º, —Å–æ–¥–µ—Ä–∂–∏—Ç –ª–∏ –∫–∞–∂–¥–∞—è —Å—Ç—Ä–æ–∫–∞ —Å–ª–æ–≤–æ " Chocolate & rdquo ;. –ï—Å–ª–∏ —Å—Ç—Ä–æ–∫–∞ —Å–æ–¥–µ—Ä–∂–∏—Ç —Å–ª–æ–≤–æ " Chocolate & rdquo ;, —ç—Ç–∞ —Å—Ç—Ä–æ–∫–∞ –≤—ã–≤–æ–¥–∏—Ç—Å—è –Ω–∞ –∫–æ–Ω—Å–æ–ª—å. –í –ø—Ä–æ—Ç–∏–≤–Ω–æ–º —Å–ª—É—á–∞–µ –Ω–∏—á–µ–≥–æ –Ω–µ –ø—Ä–æ–∏—Å—Ö–æ–¥–∏—Ç. < br>

–î–∞–≤–∞–π—Ç–µ –∑–∞–ø—É—Å—Ç–∏–º –Ω–∞—à –∫–æ–¥ –∏ –ø–æ—Å–º–æ—Ç—Ä–∏–º, —á—Ç–æ –ø—Ä–æ–∏–∑–æ–π–¥–µ—Ç:

–ü—Ä–æ–∏–∑–æ—à–ª–∞ –æ—à–∏–±–∫–∞!

–†–µ—à–µ–Ω–∏–µ

–û—à–∏–±–∫–∞ " —Ç—Ä–µ–±—É–µ—Ç—Å—è –±–∞–π—Ç–æ–≤—ã–π –æ–±—ä–µ–∫—Ç, –∞ –Ω–µ " str " " –≥–æ–≤–æ—Ä–∏—Ç –Ω–∞–º, —á—Ç–æ –º—ã " ve –ø–æ–ø—ã—Ç–∞–ª—Å—è –ø–æ–ª—É—á–∏—Ç—å –¥–æ—Å—Ç—É–ø –∫ –æ–±—ä–µ–∫—Ç—É, –∫–∞–∫ –∫ —Å—Ç—Ä–æ–∫–µ, —Ç–æ–≥–¥–∞ –∫–∞–∫ –º—ã –¥–æ–ª–∂–Ω—ã –æ–±—Ä–∞—â–∞—Ç—å—Å—è –∫ –Ω–µ–º—É, –∫–∞–∫ –∫ —Å–ø–∏—Å–∫—É –±–∞–π—Ç–æ–≤.

–ü—Ä–∏—á–∏–Ω–∞ —ç—Ç–æ–π –æ—à–∏–±–∫–∏ –≤ —Ç–æ–º, —á—Ç–æ –º—ã –æ—Ç–∫—Ä—ã–ª–∏ –Ω–∞—à —Ñ–∞–π–ª & ldquo ; recipes.txt " –∫–∞–∫ –±–∏ nary:

–î–≤–æ–∏—á–Ω—ã–µ —Ñ–∞–π–ª—ã –Ω–µ —Ä–∞—Å—Å–º–∞—Ç—Ä–∏–≤–∞—é—Ç—Å—è –∫–∞–∫ —Å—Ç—Ä–æ–∫–∏ —Ç–µ–∫—Å—Ç–∞. –í–º–µ—Å—Ç–æ —ç—Ç–æ–≥–æ –æ–Ω–∏ —Ä–∞—Å—Å–º–∞—Ç—Ä–∏–≤–∞—é—Ç—Å—è –∫–∞–∫ —Å–µ—Ä–∏—è –±–∞–π—Ç–æ–≤. –≠—Ç–æ –æ–∑–Ω–∞—á–∞–µ—Ç, —á—Ç–æ –∫–æ–≥–¥–∞ –º—ã –ø—ã—Ç–∞–µ–º—Å—è –ø—Ä–æ–≤–µ—Ä–∏—Ç—å, –µ—Å—Ç—å –ª–∏ " –®–æ–∫–æ–ª–∞–¥ " –Ω–∞—Ö–æ–¥–∏—Ç—Å—è –≤ –∫–∞–∂–¥–æ–π —Å—Ç—Ä–æ–∫–µ —Ñ–∞–π–ª–∞, –≤–æ–∑–Ω–∏–∫–∞–µ—Ç –æ—à–∏–±–∫–∞. Python –Ω–µ –∑–Ω–∞–µ—Ç, –∫–∞–∫ –ø—Ä–æ–≤–µ—Ä–∏—Ç—å —Å—Ç—Ä–æ–∫—É –≤ –æ–±—ä–µ–∫—Ç–µ –±–∞–π—Ç–æ–≤.

–ú—ã –º–æ–∂–µ–º —Ä–µ—à–∏—Ç—å —ç—Ç—É –æ—à–∏–±–∫—É, –æ—Ç–∫—Ä—ã–≤ –Ω–∞—à —Ñ–∞–π–ª –≤ —Ä–µ–∂–∏–º–µ —á—Ç–µ–Ω–∏—è –≤–º–µ—Å—Ç–æ —Ä–µ–∂–∏–º–∞ –¥–≤–æ–∏—á–Ω–æ–≥–æ —á—Ç–µ–Ω–∏—è:
< p> –†–µ–∂–∏–º —á—Ç–µ–Ω–∏—è –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑—É–µ—Ç—Å—è –¥–ª—è —á—Ç–µ–Ω–∏—è —Ç–µ–∫—Å—Ç–æ–≤—ã—Ö —Ñ–∞–π–ª–æ–≤. –†–µ–∂–∏–º –¥–≤–æ–∏—á–Ω–æ–≥–æ —á—Ç–µ–Ω–∏—è –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑—É–µ—Ç—Å—è –¥–ª—è —á—Ç–µ–Ω–∏—è –¥–≤–æ–∏—á–Ω—ã—Ö —Ñ–∞–π–ª–æ–≤. –ú—ã —É–¥–∞–ª–∏–ª–∏ –∑–Ω–∞—á–æ–∫ " b " –∏–∑ –ø–∞—Ä–∞–º–µ—Ç—Ä–∞ —Ä–µ–∂–∏–º–∞, —á—Ç–æ–±—ã –ø—Ä–æ—á–∏—Ç–∞—Ç—å –Ω–∞—à —Ñ–∞–π–ª –≤ —Ä–µ–∂–∏–º–µ —á—Ç–µ–Ω–∏—è. –î–∞–≤–∞–π—Ç–µ –ø–æ–ø—Ä–æ–±—É–µ–º —Å–Ω–æ–≤–∞ –∑–∞–ø—É—Å—Ç–∏—Ç—å –Ω–∞—à –∫–æ–¥:

–ù–∞—à –∫–æ–¥ —Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∞–µ—Ç! –¢–µ–ø–µ—Ä—å, –∫–æ–≥–¥–∞ –Ω–∞—à —Ñ–∞–π–ª —á–∏—Ç–∞–µ—Ç—Å—è –≤ —Ä–µ–∂–∏–º–µ —á—Ç–µ–Ω–∏—è, –Ω–∞—à –∫–æ–¥ –º–æ–∂–µ—Ç –≤—ã–ø–æ–ª–Ω–∏—Ç—å " if & hellip; –≤ " —Å—Ä–∞–≤–Ω–µ–Ω–∏–µ, —á—Ç–æ–±—ã –ø—Ä–æ–≤–µ—Ä–∏—Ç—å, –µ—Å—Ç—å –ª–∏ " –®–æ–∫–æ–ª–∞–¥ " –Ω–∞—Ö–æ–¥–∏—Ç—Å—è –≤ –∫–∞–∂–¥–æ–π —Å—Ç—Ä–æ–∫–µ —Ñ–∞–π–ª–∞ " recipes.txt " —Ñ–∞–π–ª.

–û—à–∏–±–∫–∞ –ø–æ–¥–æ–±–Ω–æ–≥–æ –±–∞–π—Ç–æ–≤–æ–º—É –æ–±—ä–µ–∫—Ç—É

–û–±—Å—É–∂–¥–∞–µ–º–∞—è –æ—à–∏–±–∫–∞ –∞–Ω–∞–ª–æ–≥–∏—á–Ω–∞ –æ—à–∏–±–∫–µ " TypeError: –ø–µ—Ä–≤—ã–π –∞—Ä–≥—É–º–µ–Ω—Ç X –¥–æ–ª–∂–µ–Ω –±—ã—Ç—å –±–∞–π—Ç–∞–º–∏ –∏–ª–∏ –∫–æ—Ä—Ç–µ–∂–µ–º –±–∞–π—Ç–æ–≤, not str & rdquo ;.

–í—ã –º–æ–∂–µ—Ç–µ —Å—Ç–æ–ª–∫–Ω—É—Ç—å—Å—è —Å —ç—Ç–æ–π –æ—à–∏–±–∫–æ–π, –µ—Å–ª–∏ –ø–æ–ø—ã—Ç–∞–µ—Ç–µ—Å—å –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑–æ–≤–∞—Ç—å —Å—Ç—Ä–æ–∫–æ–≤—ã–π –º–µ—Ç–æ–¥ –¥–ª—è —Å–ø–∏—Å–∫–∞ –±–∞–π—Ç–æ–≤. –ß—Ç–æ–±—ã —Ä–µ—à–∏—Ç—å —ç—Ç—É –æ—à–∏–±–∫—É, –≤—ã –º–æ–∂–µ—Ç–µ –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑–æ–≤–∞—Ç—å —Ç–æ—Ç –∂–µ –ø–æ–¥—Ö–æ–¥, –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä—ã–π –º—ã –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑–æ–≤–∞–ª–∏ –¥–ª—è —Ä–µ—à–µ–Ω–∏—è –ø–æ—Å–ª–µ–¥–Ω—è—è –æ—à–∏–±–∫–∞. –£–±–µ–¥–∏—Ç–µ—Å—å, —á—Ç–æ –≤—ã –æ—Ç–∫—Ä—ã–≤–∞–µ—Ç–µ –≤—Å–µ —Ç–µ–∫—Å—Ç–æ–≤—ã–µ —Ñ–∞–π–ª—ã –≤ —Ä–µ–∂–∏–º–µ —á—Ç–µ–Ω–∏—è —Ç–µ–∫—Å—Ç–∞, –∞ –Ω–µ –≤ —Ä–µ–∂–∏–º–µ –¥–≤–æ–∏—á–Ω–æ–≥–æ —á—Ç–µ–Ω–∏—è.



–ó–∞–∫–ª—é—á–µ–Ω–∏–µ

–û—à–∏–±–∫–∞ " typeerror: —Ç—Ä–µ–±—É–µ—Ç—Å—è –æ–±—ä–µ–∫—Ç, –ø–æ–¥–æ–±–Ω—ã–π –±–∞–π—Ç–∞–º, –∞ –Ω–µ " str " " –≤–æ–∑–Ω–∏–∫–∞–µ—Ç, –∫–æ–≥–¥–∞ –≤—ã –æ–±—Ä–∞–±–∞—Ç—ã–≤–∞–µ—Ç–µ –æ–±—ä–µ–∫—Ç –∫–∞–∫ —Å—Ç—Ä–æ–∫—É, –∞ –Ω–µ –∫–∞–∫ —Å–µ—Ä–∏—é –±–∞–π—Ç–æ–≤. –¢–∏–ø–∏—á–Ω—ã–π —Å—Ü–µ–Ω–∞—Ä–∏–π, –≤ –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä–æ–º –≤–æ–∑–Ω–∏–∫–∞–µ—Ç —ç—Ç–∞ –æ—à–∏–±–∫–∞, - —ç—Ç–æ –∫–æ–≥–¥–∞ –≤—ã —á–∏—Ç–∞–µ—Ç–µ —Ç–µ–∫—Å—Ç–æ–≤—ã–π —Ñ–∞–π–ª –∫–∞–∫ –¥–≤–æ–∏—á–Ω—ã–π.

–¢–µ–ø–µ—Ä—å –≤—ã –≥–æ—Ç–æ–≤—ã —Ä–µ—à–∏—Ç—å –æ—à–∏–±–∫—É –±–∞–π—Ç–æ–≤–æ–≥–æ –æ–±—ä–µ–∫—Ç–∞, –∫–∞–∫ Python pro!

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