Стек Python: практическое руководство

–°—Ç–µ–∫–∏ - –≤–∞–∂–Ω–∞—è —Å—Ç—Ä—É–∫—Ç—É—Ä–∞ –¥–∞–Ω–Ω—ã—Ö —Å —à–∏—Ä–æ–∫–∏–º —Å–ø–µ–∫—Ç—Ä–æ–º –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑–æ–≤–∞–Ω–∏—è.

–í –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–∏–∏ —Å—Ç–µ–∫–∏ –ø–æ–∑–≤–æ–ª—è—é—Ç —Ö—Ä–∞–Ω–∏—Ç—å –¥–∞–Ω–Ω—ã–µ –≤ –ø–æ—Ä—è–¥–∫–µ "–ø–æ—Å–ª–µ–¥–Ω–∏–π –ø—Ä–∏—à–µ–ª - –ø–µ—Ä–≤—ã–π —É—à–µ–ª" (LIFO). –≠—Ç–æ –æ–∑–Ω–∞—á–∞–µ—Ç, —á—Ç–æ –ø–æ—Å–ª–µ–¥–Ω–∏–π —ç–ª–µ–º–µ–Ω—Ç, —Ö—Ä–∞–Ω—è—â–∏–π—Å—è –≤ —Å—Ç–µ–∫–µ, –±—É–¥–µ—Ç –æ–±—Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∞–Ω –ø–µ—Ä–≤—ã–º.

–ù–æ –∫–∞–∫ —Å–æ–∑–¥–∞—Ç—å —Å—Ç–µ–∫ –≤ Python? –ù–∞ —ç—Ç–æ—Ç –≤–æ–ø—Ä–æ—Å –º—ã —Å–æ–±–∏—Ä–∞–µ–º—Å—è –æ—Ç–≤–µ—Ç–∏—Ç—å –≤ —ç—Ç–æ–º —Ä—É–∫–æ–≤–æ–¥—Å—Ç–≤–µ. –ö –∫–æ–Ω—Ü—É —á—Ç–µ–Ω–∏—è —ç—Ç–æ–≥–æ —Ä—É–∫–æ–≤–æ–¥—Å—Ç–≤–∞ –≤—ã —Å—Ç–∞–Ω–µ—Ç–µ —ç–∫—Å–ø–µ—Ä—Ç–æ–º –≤ —Å–æ–∑–¥–∞–Ω–∏–∏ –∏ —Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–µ —Å–æ —Å—Ç–µ–∫–∞–º–∏ –≤ Python.

–°—Ç–µ–∫–∏ Python

–°—Ç–µ–∫–∏ —Ö—Ä–∞–Ω—è—Ç –¥–∞–Ω–Ω—ã–µ –≤ –ø–æ—Å–ª–µ–¥–Ω–µ–º –∑–∞–∫–∞–∑ –≤ –ø–æ—Ä—è–¥–∫–µ –æ—á–µ—Ä–µ–¥–∏ (LIFO).

–ß—Ç–æ–±—ã –ø–æ–º–æ—á—å –≤–∞–º –ø–æ–Ω—è—Ç—å, –∫–∞–∫ —Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∞–µ—Ç —ç—Ç–æ—Ç –ø–æ—Ä—è–¥–æ–∫, —Ä–∞—Å—Å–º–æ—Ç—Ä–∏–º —Å—Ç–æ–ø–∫—É —Ç–∞—Ä–µ–ª–æ–∫. –ö–æ–≥–¥–∞ –≤–∞–º –Ω—É–∂–Ω–æ –æ—á–∏—Å—Ç–∏—Ç—å —Å—Ç–æ–ø–∫—É —Ç–∞—Ä–µ–ª–æ–∫, –ø–µ—Ä–≤–∞—è —Ç–∞—Ä–µ–ª–∫–∞, –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä—É—é –≤—ã –ø–µ—Ä–µ–º–µ—Å—Ç–∏—Ç–µ, –±—É–¥–µ—Ç —Ç–æ–π, –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä–∞—è –Ω–∞—Ö–æ–¥–∏—Ç—Å—è –Ω–∞–≤–µ—Ä—Ö—É. –ó–∞—Ç–µ–º, –ø–µ—Ä–µ–º–µ—â–∞—è —Ç–∞—Ä–µ–ª–∫–∏, –≤—ã —Å–º–æ–∂–µ—Ç–µ –ø–æ–ª—É—á–∏—Ç—å –¥–æ—Å—Ç—É–ø –∫ —Ç–∞—Ä–µ–ª–∫–∞–º, —Ä–∞—Å–ø–æ–ª–æ–∂–µ–Ω–Ω—ã–º –Ω–∏–∂–µ –≤ —Å—Ç–æ–ø–∫–µ.

–°—Ç–µ–∫–∏ - —ç—Ç–æ –ø—Ä–æ—Ç–∏–≤–æ–ø–æ–ª–æ–∂–Ω–æ—Å—Ç—å –æ—á–µ—Ä–µ–¥—è–º –≤ Python. –û—á–µ—Ä–µ–¥–∏ —É–¥–∞–ª—è—é—Ç –ø–æ—Å–ª–µ–¥–Ω–∏–π –¥–æ–±–∞–≤–ª–µ–Ω–Ω—ã–π —ç–ª–µ–º–µ–Ω—Ç (–ø–æ—Å–∫–æ–ª—å–∫—É –æ–Ω–∏ –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑—É—é—Ç —Å—Ç—Ä—É–∫—Ç—É—Ä—É "–ø–µ—Ä–≤—ã–º –ø—Ä–∏—à–µ–ª - –ø–µ—Ä–≤—ã–º —É—à–µ–ª"), —Ç–æ–≥–¥–∞ –∫–∞–∫ —Å—Ç–µ–∫–∏ —É–¥–∞–ª—è—é—Ç –ø–æ—Å–ª–µ–¥–Ω–∏–π –¥–æ–±–∞–≤–ª–µ–Ω–Ω—ã–π —ç–ª–µ–º–µ–Ω—Ç (–ø–æ—Ç–æ–º—É —á—Ç–æ –æ–Ω–∏ –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑—É—é—Ç —Å—Ç—Ä—É–∫—Ç—É—Ä—É "–ø–æ—Å–ª–µ–¥–Ω–∏–π –ø—Ä–∏—à–µ–ª - –ø–µ—Ä–≤—ã–π —É—à–µ–ª").

–û–±—ã—á–Ω–æ —Å—Ç–µ–∫–∏ –ø–æ–¥–¥–µ—Ä–∂–∏–≤–∞—é—Ç –¥–≤–µ –æ–ø–µ—Ä–∞—Ü–∏–∏: push –∏ pop. –ù–∞–∂–∞—Ç–∏–µ –ø–æ–∑–≤–æ–ª—è–µ—Ç –≤–∞–º –¥–æ–±–∞–≤–∏—Ç—å —ç–ª–µ–º–µ–Ω—Ç –Ω–∞ –≤–µ—Ä—à–∏–Ω—É —Å—Ç–µ–∫–∞, –∞ –≤—ã—Ç–∞–ª–∫–∏–≤–∞–Ω–∏–µ –ø–æ–∑–≤–æ–ª—è–µ—Ç —É–¥–∞–ª–∏—Ç—å —ç–ª–µ–º–µ–Ω—Ç –Ω–∞–≤–µ—Ä—Ö—É —Å—Ç–µ–∫–∞.

–í Python –µ—Å—Ç—å –¥–≤–∞ –æ—Å–Ω–æ–≤–Ω—ã—Ö –ø–æ–¥—Ö–æ–¥–∞, –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä—ã–µ –≤—ã –º–æ–∂–µ—Ç–µ –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑–æ–≤–∞—Ç—å –¥–ª—è —Å–æ–∑–¥–∞–Ω–∏—è —Å—Ç–µ–∫–∞: –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑—É—è –≤—Å—Ç—Ä–æ–µ–Ω–Ω—ã–µ —Å–ø–∏—Å–∫–∏ –∏ –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑—É—è –∫–ª–∞—Å—Å collections.deque (). –î–∞–≤–∞–π—Ç–µ —Ä–∞–∑–±–µ—Ä–µ–º—Å—è, –∫–∞–∫ —Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∞–µ—Ç –∫–∞–∂–¥—ã–π –∏–∑ —ç—Ç–∏—Ö –ø–æ–¥—Ö–æ–¥–æ–≤.

81% —É—á–∞—Å—Ç–Ω–∏–∫–æ–≤ –∑–∞—è–≤–∏–ª–∏, —á—Ç–æ –æ–Ω–∏ –ø–æ—á—É–≤—Å—Ç–≤–æ–≤–∞–ª–∏ —Å–µ–±—è –±–æ–ª–µ–µ —É–≤–µ—Ä–µ–Ω–Ω—ã–º–∏ –≤ —Å–≤–æ–∏—Ö –ø–µ—Ä—Å–ø–µ–∫—Ç–∏–≤–∞—Ö —Ç—Ä—É–¥–æ—É—Å—Ç—Ä–æ–π—Å—Ç–≤–∞ –≤ —Å—Ñ–µ—Ä–µ –≤—ã—Å–æ–∫–∏—Ö —Ç–µ—Ö–Ω–æ–ª–æ–≥–∏–π –ø–æ—Å–ª–µ –ø–æ—Å–µ—â–µ–Ω–∏—è —É—á–µ–±–Ω–æ–≥–æ –ª–∞–≥–µ—Ä—è. –ü–æ–ª—É—á–∏—Ç–µ –ø—Ä–∏–≥–ª–∞—à–µ–Ω–∏–µ –Ω–∞ —É—á–µ–±–Ω—ã–π –∫—É—Ä—Å —Å–µ–≥–æ–¥–Ω—è.

–°—Ä–µ–¥–Ω–∏–π –≤—ã–ø—É—Å–∫–Ω–∏–∫ —É—á–µ–±–Ω–æ–≥–æ –ª–∞–≥–µ—Ä—è –ø–æ—Ç—Ä–∞—Ç–∏–ª –º–µ–Ω–µ–µ —à–µ—Å—Ç–∏ –º–µ—Å—è—Ü–µ–≤ –Ω–∞ –ø–µ—Ä–µ—Ö–æ–¥–Ω—É—é –∫–∞—Ä—å–µ—Ä—É, –æ—Ç –Ω–∞—á–∞–ª–∞ —É—á–µ–±–Ω–æ–≥–æ –ª–∞–≥–µ—Ä—è –¥–æ –ø–æ–∏—Å–∫–∞ —Å–≤–æ–µ–π –ø–µ—Ä–≤–æ–π —Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç—ã.

–î–∞–Ω–Ω—ã–µ –≤—Å—Ç—Ä–æ–µ–Ω–Ω–æ–≥–æ —Å–ø–∏—Å–∫–∞ type –ø–æ–∑–≤–æ–ª—è–µ—Ç —Å–æ–∑–¥–∞–≤–∞—Ç—å —Å—Ç–µ–∫ –Ω–∞ Python.

–ü–æ—Å–∫–æ–ª—å–∫—É —Å–ø–∏—Å–∫–∏ Python —Ä–µ–∞–ª–∏–∑–æ–≤–∞–Ω—ã –≤ –≤–∏–¥–µ –º–∞—Å—Å–∏–≤–æ–≤, –≤—ã –º–æ–∂–µ—Ç–µ –ª–µ–≥–∫–æ –¥–æ–±–∞–≤–ª—è—Ç—å –∏ —É–¥–∞–ª—è—Ç—å —ç–ª–µ–º–µ–Ω—Ç—ã –≤ –Ω–∏—Ö. –ö—Ä–æ–º–µ —Ç–æ–≥–æ, –ø–æ—Ä—è–¥–æ–∫, –≤ –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä–æ–º –≤—ã –≤—Å—Ç–∞–≤–ª—è–µ—Ç–µ –∑–Ω–∞—á–µ–Ω–∏—è –≤ —Å–ø–∏—Å–æ–∫, –±—É–¥–µ—Ç —Å–æ—Ö—Ä–∞–Ω–µ–Ω, —á—Ç–æ –æ–∑–Ω–∞—á–∞–µ—Ç, —á—Ç–æ –≤—ã –º–æ–∂–µ—Ç–µ –ª–µ–≥–∫–æ —É–¥–∞–ª–∏—Ç—å –ø–µ—Ä–≤—ã–π –∏ –ø–æ—Å–ª–µ–¥–Ω–∏–π —ç–ª–µ–º–µ–Ω—Ç—ã –≤ —Å–ø–∏—Å–∫–µ.

–ü—Ä–µ–¥–ø–æ–ª–æ–∂–∏–º, –º—ã —Ö–æ—Ç–∏–º —Å–æ–∑–¥–∞—Ç—å —Å—Ç–æ–ø–∫—É, –≤ –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä–æ–π —Ö—Ä–∞–Ω–∏—Ç—Å—è —Å–ø–∏—Å–æ–∫ –¥–æ–º–∞—à–Ω–∏—Ö –∑–∞–¥–∞–Ω–∏–π –≤ –∫–ª–∞—Å—Å–µ. –£—á–∏—Ç–µ–ª—å —Ö–æ—á–µ—Ç –æ—Ü–µ–Ω–∏–≤–∞—Ç—å —ç—Ç–∏ –∑–∞–¥–∞–Ω–∏—è –≤ —Ç–æ–º –ø–æ—Ä—è–¥–∫–µ, –≤ –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä–æ–º –æ–Ω–∏ –ø–æ—è–≤–ª—è—é—Ç—Å—è —Å—Ç–æ–ø–∫–∞ (—Ç–∞–∫–∏–º –æ–±—Ä–∞–∑–æ–º, –∑–∞–¥–∞–Ω–∏–µ, –ø–µ—Ä–µ–¥–∞–Ω–Ω–æ–µ –ø–µ—Ä–≤—ã–º, –±—É–¥–µ—Ç –≤–Ω–∏–∑—É —Å—Ç–æ–ø–∫–∏, –∞ –∑–∞–¥–∞–Ω–∏–µ, –ø–µ—Ä–µ–¥–∞–Ω–Ω–æ–µ –ø–æ—Å–ª–µ–¥–Ω–∏–º, –±—É–¥–µ—Ç –≤ –≤–µ—Ä—Ö–Ω–µ–π —á–∞—Å—Ç–∏ —Å—Ç–æ–ø–∫–∏).

–î–æ–±–∞–≤–∏—Ç—å —ç–ª–µ–º–µ–Ω—Ç—ã –≤ —Å—Ç–æ–ø–∫—É < / h3>

–ß—Ç–æ–±—ã –¥–æ–±–∞–≤–∏—Ç—å —ç–ª–µ–º–µ–Ω—Ç—ã –≤ —Å—Ç–µ–∫, –º—ã –º–æ–∂–µ–º –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑–æ–≤–∞—Ç—å –º–µ—Ç–æ–¥ append (). –ú—ã –º–æ–≥–ª–∏ –±—ã —Å–æ–∑–¥–∞—Ç—å —Å—Ç–µ–∫ –Ω–∞–∑–Ω–∞—á–µ–Ω–∏—è –¥–æ–º–∞—à–Ω–µ–≥–æ –∑–∞–¥–∞–Ω–∏—è, –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑—É—è —Å–ª–µ–¥—É—é—â–∏–π –∫–æ–¥:

–ù–∞—à –∫–æ–¥ –≤–æ–∑–≤—Ä–∞—â–∞–µ—Ç:

–í –Ω–∞—à–µ–º –∫–æ–¥–µ –°–Ω–∞—á–∞–ª–∞ –º—ã –æ–±—ä—è–≤–ª—è–µ–º —Å–ø–∏—Å–æ–∫ –ø–æ–¥ –Ω–∞–∑–≤–∞–Ω–∏–µ–º assignments. –ó–∞—Ç–µ–º –º—ã –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑—É–µ–º –º–µ—Ç–æ–¥ append (), —á—Ç–æ–±—ã –¥–æ–±–∞–≤–∏—Ç—å —Ç—Ä–∏ –∏–º–µ–Ω–∏ –≤ –Ω–∞—à —Å–ø–∏—Å–æ–∫ –ø–µ—Ä–µ–¥–∞–Ω–Ω—ã—Ö –Ω–∞–∑–Ω–∞—á–µ–Ω–∏–π. –ò–º–µ–Ω–∞, –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä—ã–µ –º—ã –¥–æ–±–∞–≤–ª—è–µ–º, –∏–¥—É—Ç –ø–æ –ø–æ—Ä—è–¥–∫—É: –•–∞–Ω–Ω–∞, –ë–µ–Ω–Ω–∏, –ì–æ—Ä–¥–æ–Ω. –ü–æ—Å–∫–æ–ª—å–∫—É –ì–æ—Ä–¥–æ–Ω —Å–¥–∞–ª —Å–≤–æ–µ –∑–∞–¥–∞–Ω–∏–µ –ø–æ—Å–ª–µ–¥–Ω–∏–º, –æ–Ω–æ –æ—Ç–æ–±—Ä–∞–∂–∞–µ—Ç—Å—è –Ω–∞ –ø–æ—Å–ª–µ–¥–Ω–µ–π –ø–æ–∑–∏—Ü–∏–∏ –≤ –Ω–∞—à–µ–º —Å–ø–∏—Å–∫–µ.

–£–¥–∞–ª–∏—Ç—å —ç–ª–µ–º–µ–Ω—Ç—ã –∏–∑ —Å—Ç–µ–∫–∞

–ü—Ä–µ–¥–ø–æ–ª–æ–∂–∏–º, –º—ã –æ—Ü–µ–Ω–∏–ª–∏ –∑–∞–¥–∞–Ω–∏–µ –ì–æ—Ä–¥–æ–Ω–∞ –∏ –º—ã —Ö–æ—Ç–∏–º —É–∑–Ω–∞—Ç—å, –∫–∞–∫–æ–π –∏–∑ –Ω–∏—Ö —Å—Ç–æ–∏—Ç —Ä—è–¥–æ–º —Å –æ—Ü–µ–Ω–∫–æ–π. –≠—Ç–æ –≤–∫–ª—é—á–∞–µ—Ç —É–¥–∞–ª–µ–Ω–∏–µ —ç–ª–µ–º–µ–Ω—Ç–∞ –Ω–∞–≤–µ—Ä—Ö—É –Ω–∞—à–µ–≥–æ —Å—Ç–µ–∫–∞.

–ß—Ç–æ–±—ã —É–¥–∞–ª–∏—Ç—å —ç–ª–µ–º–µ–Ω—Ç –∏–∑ –Ω–∞—à–µ–≥–æ —Å—Ç–µ–∫–∞, –º—ã –º–æ–∂–µ–º –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑–æ–≤–∞—Ç—å –º–µ—Ç–æ–¥ pop (). –í–æ—Ç –∫–æ–¥, –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä—ã–π –º—ã –º–æ–≥–ª–∏ –±—ã –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑–æ–≤–∞—Ç—å –¥–ª—è —É–¥–∞–ª–µ–Ω–∏—è –≤–µ—Ä—Ö–Ω–µ–≥–æ —ç–ª–µ–º–µ–Ω—Ç–∞ –≤ –Ω–∞—à–µ–º —Å—Ç–µ–∫–µ:

–ù–∞—à –∫–æ–¥ –≤–æ–∑–≤—Ä–∞—â–∞–µ—Ç:

–ò–º—è –ì–æ—Ä–¥–æ–Ω–∞ –∏–º–µ–µ—Ç –±—ã–ª —É–¥–∞–ª–µ–Ω –∏–∑ —Å—Ç–µ–∫–∞ —Å –ø–æ–º–æ—â—å—é pop (), –ø–æ—ç—Ç–æ–º—É —Ç–µ–ø–µ—Ä—å –Ω–∞—à —Å—Ç–µ–∫ —Å–æ–¥–µ—Ä–∂–∏—Ç —Ç–æ–ª—å–∫–æ –¥–≤–∞ –∏–º–µ–Ω–∏: –•–∞–Ω–Ω–∞ –∏ –ë–µ–Ω–Ω–∏.

–ö–ª–∞—Å—Å collections.deque

–ö–ª–∞—Å—Å deque –≤ –±–∏–±–ª–∏–æ—Ç–µ–∫–µ –∫–æ–ª–ª–µ–∫—Ü–∏–π –ø–æ–∑–≤–æ–ª—è–µ—Ç —Å–æ–∑–¥–∞–≤–∞—Ç—å –¥–≤—É—Å—Ç–æ—Ä–æ–Ω–Ω—é—é –æ—á–µ—Ä–µ–¥—å.

–û–±—ä–µ–∫—Ç deque —Ä–µ–∞–ª–∏–∑–æ–≤–∞–Ω –∫–∞–∫ –¥–≤—É—Å–≤—è–∑–Ω—ã–π —Å–ø–∏—Å–æ–∫, —á—Ç–æ –æ–∑–Ω–∞—á–∞–µ—Ç, —á—Ç–æ –æ–Ω –∏–º–µ–µ—Ç –≤—ã—Å–æ–∫—É—é –∏ —Å—Ç–∞–±–∏–ª—å–Ω—É—é –ø—Ä–æ–∏–∑–≤–æ–¥–∏—Ç–µ–ª—å–Ω–æ—Å—Ç—å –ø—Ä–∏ –≤—Å—Ç–∞–≤–∫–µ –∏ —É–¥–∞–ª–µ–Ω–∏–∏ —ç–ª–µ–º–µ–Ω—Ç–æ–≤. –ö—Ä–æ–º–µ —Ç–æ–≥–æ, –ø–æ—Å–∫–æ–ª—å–∫—É –±–∏–±–ª–∏–æ—Ç–µ–∫–∞ –∫–æ–ª–ª–µ–∫—Ü–∏–π —è–≤–ª—è–µ—Ç—Å—è —á–∞—Å—Ç—å—é —Å—Ç–∞–Ω–¥–∞—Ä—Ç–Ω–æ–π –±–∏–±–ª–∏–æ—Ç–µ–∫–∏ Python, –≤—ã –º–æ–∂–µ—Ç–µ –∏–º–ø–æ—Ä—Ç–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞—Ç—å –µ–µ –≤ —Å–≤–æ–π –∫–æ–¥ –±–µ–∑ –Ω–µ–æ–±—Ö–æ–¥–∏–º–æ—Å—Ç–∏ –∑–∞–≥—Ä—É–∂–∞—Ç—å –≤–Ω–µ—à–Ω—è—è –±–∏–±–ª–∏–æ—Ç–µ–∫–∞.

–î–ª—è —Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç—ã —Å –∫–ª–∞—Å—Å–æ–º collections.deque –º—ã –¥–æ–ª–∂–Ω—ã —Å–Ω–∞—á–∞–ª–∞ –∏–º–ø–æ—Ä—Ç–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞—Ç—å –µ–≥–æ –≤ –Ω–∞—à –∫–æ–¥ —Å –ø–æ–º–æ—â—å—é –æ–ø–µ—Ä–∞—Ç–æ—Ä–∞ –∏–º–ø–æ—Ä—Ç–∞:

–î–∞–≤–∞–π—Ç–µ –≤–µ—Ä–Ω–µ–º—Å—è –∫ –Ω–∞—à–µ–º—É –ø—Ä–∏–º–µ—Ä—É —Å –¥–æ–º–∞—à–Ω–∏–º –∑–∞–¥–∞–Ω–∏–µ–º –∏–∑ –ø—Ä–µ–¥—ã–¥—É—â–µ–≥–æ, —á—Ç–æ–±—ã –ø—Ä–æ–∏–ª–ª—é—Å—Ç—Ä–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞—Ç—å, –∫–∞–∫ –ö–ª–∞—Å—Å collections.deque —Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∞–µ—Ç.

–î–æ–±–∞–≤–∏—Ç—å —ç–ª–µ–º–µ–Ω—Ç—ã –≤ —Å—Ç–µ–∫ Deque

–í –¥–æ–±–∞–≤–ª—è—è —ç–ª–µ–º–µ–Ω—Ç—ã –≤ —Å—Ç–µ–∫ –¥–≤—É—Ö—Å—Ç–æ—Ä–æ–Ω–Ω–µ–π –æ—á–µ—Ä–µ–¥–∏, –º—ã –º–æ–∂–µ–º –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑–æ–≤–∞—Ç—å –º–µ—Ç–æ–¥ append (). –ü—Ä–µ–¥–ø–æ–ª–æ–∂–∏–º, –º—ã —Ö–æ—Ç–∏–º —Å–æ–∑–¥–∞—Ç—å –æ—á–µ—Ä–µ–¥—å —Å –Ω–∞—à–∏–º–∏ –¥–æ–º–∞—à–Ω–∏–º–∏ –∑–∞–¥–∞–Ω–∏—è–º–∏, –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑—É—è –∫–ª–∞—Å—Å deque. –ú—ã –º–æ–≥–ª–∏ –±—ã —Å–¥–µ–ª–∞—Ç—å —ç—Ç–æ —Å –ø–æ–º–æ—â—å—é —Å–ª–µ–¥—É—é—â–µ–≥–æ –∫–æ–¥–∞:

–ù–∞—à –∫–æ–¥ –≤–æ–∑–≤—Ä–∞—â–∞–µ—Ç:

–î–∞–≤–∞–π—Ç–µ —Ä–∞–∑–±–µ—Ä–µ–º –Ω–∞—à –∫–æ–¥ . –°–Ω–∞—á–∞–ª–∞ –º—ã –∏–º–ø–æ—Ä—Ç–∏—Ä—É–µ–º –∫–ª–∞—Å—Å deque –∏–∑ –±–∏–±–ª–∏–æ—Ç–µ–∫–∏ –∫–æ–ª–ª–µ–∫—Ü–∏–π. –ó–∞—Ç–µ–º –º—ã —Å–æ–∑–¥–∞–µ–º –¥–≤—É—Ö—Å—Ç–æ—Ä–æ–Ω–Ω—é—é –æ—á–µ—Ä–µ–¥—å —Å –ø–æ–º–æ—â—å—é deque () –∏ –Ω–∞–∑–Ω–∞—á–∞–µ–º –µ–µ –ø–µ—Ä–µ–º–µ–Ω–Ω–æ–π assignments.

–ó–∞—Ç–µ–º –º—ã –¥–æ–±–∞–≤–ª—è–µ–º —Ç—Ä–∏ –∏–º–µ–Ω–∏ –∫ –Ω–∞—à–µ–º—É –î–≤—É—Å—Ç–æ—Ä–æ–Ω–Ω–∏–µ –∑–∞–¥–∞–Ω–∏—è: –•–∞–Ω–Ω–∞, –ë–µ–Ω–Ω–∏ –∏ –ì–æ—Ä–¥–æ–Ω. –ù–∞–∫–æ–Ω–µ—Ü, –º—ã —Ä–∞—Å–ø–µ—á–∞—Ç—ã–≤–∞–µ–º —Å–æ–¥–µ—Ä–∂–∏–º–æ–µ –Ω–∞—à–µ–π –æ—á–µ—Ä–µ–¥–∏ –∑–∞–¥–∞–Ω–∏–π –Ω–∞ –∫–æ–Ω—Å–æ–ª—å.

"–ö–∞—Ä—å–µ—Ä–Ω–∞—è –∫–∞—Ä–º–∞ –≤–æ—à–ª–∞ –≤ –º–æ—é –∂–∏–∑–Ω—å —Ç–æ–≥–¥–∞, –∫–æ–≥–¥–∞ —è –±–æ–ª—å—à–µ –≤—Å–µ–≥–æ –≤ –Ω–µ–π –Ω—É–∂–¥–∞–ª–∞—Å—å, –∏ –±—ã—Å—Ç—Ä–æ –ø–æ–º–æ–≥–ª–∞ –º–Ω–µ –ø—Ä–æ–π—Ç–∏ –∫—É—Ä—Å –æ–±—É—á–µ–Ω–∏—è. –ß–µ—Ä–µ–∑ –¥–≤–∞ –º–µ—Å—è—Ü–∞ –ø–æ—Å–ª–µ –æ–∫–æ–Ω—á–∞–Ω–∏—è —É—á–µ–±—ã, –Ø –Ω–∞—à–µ–ª —Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç—É —Å–≤–æ–µ–π –º–µ—á—Ç—ã, –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä–∞—è —Å–æ–æ—Ç–≤–µ—Ç—Å—Ç–≤–æ–≤–∞–ª–∞ –º–æ–∏–º —Ü–µ–Ω–Ω–æ—Å—Ç—è–º –∏ —Ü–µ–ª—è–º –≤ –∂–∏–∑–Ω–∏! "

–í–µ–Ω–µ—Ä–∞, –∏–Ω–∂–µ–Ω–µ—Ä-–ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∏—Å—Ç Rockbot

–í—ã –º–æ–∂–µ—Ç–µ –≤–∏–¥–µ—Ç—å —á—Ç–æ –≤ —ç—Ç–æ–º –ø—Ä–∏–º–µ—Ä–µ –Ω–∞—à–∏ –¥–∞–Ω–Ω—ã–µ —Ö—Ä–∞–Ω—è—Ç—Å—è –≤ –≤–∏–¥–µ –¥–≤—É—Ö—Å—Ç–æ—Ä–æ–Ω–Ω–µ–π –æ—á–µ—Ä–µ–¥–∏, –∞ –Ω–µ —Å—Ç–µ–∫–∞ (–æ–±–æ–∑–Ω–∞—á–µ–Ω–æ —Ç–µ–º, —á—Ç–æ –Ω–∞—à —Ä–µ–∑—É–ª—å—Ç–∞—Ç –∑–∞–∫–ª—é—á–µ–Ω –≤ deque ()). –≠—Ç–æ –ø–æ—Ç–æ–º—É, —á—Ç–æ –º—ã –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑—É–µ–º —Å—Ç—Ä—É–∫—Ç—É—Ä—É –¥–≤—É—Ö—Å—Ç–æ—Ä–æ–Ω–Ω–µ–π –æ—á–µ—Ä–µ–¥–∏, —Ö–æ—Ç—è –Ω–∞—à–∏ –¥–∞–Ω–Ω—ã–µ –ø–æ-–ø—Ä–µ–∂–Ω–µ–º—É –¥–µ–π—Å—Ç–≤—É—é—Ç –∫–∞–∫ —Å—Ç–µ–∫.

–£–¥–∞–ª–µ–Ω–∏–µ —ç–ª–µ–º–µ–Ω—Ç–æ–≤ –∏–∑ —Å—Ç–µ–∫–∞ –¥–≤—É—Ö—Å—Ç–æ—Ä–æ–Ω–Ω–µ–π –æ—á–µ—Ä–µ–¥–∏

–£–¥–∞–ª–µ–Ω–∏–µ —ç–ª–µ–º–µ–Ω—Ç–æ–≤ –∏–∑ —Å—Ç–µ–∫–∞ –¥–≤—É—Ö—Å—Ç–æ—Ä–æ–Ω–Ω–µ–π –æ—á–µ—Ä–µ–¥–∏ , –≤—ã –º–æ–∂–µ—Ç–µ –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑–æ–≤–∞—Ç—å –º–µ—Ç–æ–¥ pop ().

–ü—Ä–µ–¥–ø–æ–ª–æ–∂–∏–º, –º—ã —Ç–æ–ª—å–∫–æ —á—Ç–æ –æ—Ü–µ–Ω–∏–ª–∏ –∑–∞–¥–∞–Ω–∏—è –ì–æ—Ä–¥–æ–Ω–∞ –∏ –ë–µ–Ω–Ω–∏. –ß—Ç–æ–±—ã —É–¥–∞–ª–∏—Ç—å –∏—Ö –∏–∑ –Ω–∞—à–µ–≥–æ —Å—Ç–µ–∫–∞, –º—ã –º–æ–≥–ª–∏ –±—ã –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑–æ–≤–∞—Ç—å —Å–ª–µ–¥—É—é—â–∏–π –∫–æ–¥:

–ù–∞—à –∫–æ–¥ –≤–æ–∑–≤—Ä–∞—â–∞–µ—Ç:

–í –Ω–∞—à–µ–º –∫–æ–¥–µ –º—ã —Å–Ω–∞—á–∞–ª–∞ —Å–æ–∑–¥–∞–µ–º —Å—Ç–µ–∫ –¥–≤—É—Ö—Å—Ç–æ—Ä–æ–Ω–Ω–µ–π –æ—á–µ—Ä–µ–¥–∏ —Å —Ç—Ä–µ–º—è –∑–Ω–∞—á–µ–Ω–∏—è–º–∏. –ó–∞—Ç–µ–º –º—ã –≤—ã–ø–æ–ª–Ω—è–µ–º pop () –¥–≤–∞–∂–¥—ã. –ö–∞–∂–¥—ã–π —Ä–∞–∑, –∫–æ–≥–¥–∞ –≤—ã–ø–æ–ª–Ω—è–µ—Ç—Å—è –∏–Ω—Å—Ç—Ä—É–∫—Ü–∏—è pop (), —ç–ª–µ–º–µ–Ω—Ç –Ω–∞–≤–µ—Ä—Ö—É –Ω–∞—à–µ–≥–æ —Å—Ç–µ–∫–∞ —É–¥–∞–ª—è–µ—Ç—Å—è. –≠—Ç–æ –æ–∑–Ω–∞—á–∞–µ—Ç, —á—Ç–æ –∑–Ω–∞—á–µ–Ω–∏—è Gordon, –∞ –∑–∞—Ç–µ–º Benny —É–¥–∞–ª—è—é—Ç—Å—è –∏–∑ –Ω–∞—à–µ–≥–æ —Å—Ç–µ–∫–∞, –æ—Å—Ç–∞–≤–ª—è—è Hann ah –∫–∞–∫ –µ–¥–∏–Ω—Å—Ç–≤–µ–Ω–Ω—ã–π —ç–ª–µ–º–µ–Ω—Ç, –æ—Å—Ç–∞–≤—à–∏–π—Å—è –≤ –Ω–∞—à–µ–º —Å—Ç–µ–∫–µ.

–ß—Ç–æ–±—ã —É–∑–Ω–∞—Ç—å –±–æ–ª—å—à–µ –æ –∫–ª–∞—Å—Å–µ Python deque, –ø—Ä–æ—á–∏—Ç–∞–π—Ç–µ –Ω–∞—à–µ —Ä—É–∫–æ–≤–æ–¥—Å—Ç–≤–æ –ø–æ –æ—á–µ—Ä–µ–¥—è–º Python –∏ deques .

–ó–∞–∫–ª—é—á–µ–Ω–∏–µ

–°—Ç–µ–∫–∏ –ø–æ–∑–≤–æ–ª—è—é—Ç —Ö—Ä–∞–Ω–∏—Ç—å –¥–∞–Ω–Ω—ã–µ –≤ –ø–æ—Ä—è–¥–∫–µ "–ø–æ—Å–ª–µ–¥–Ω–∏–π –ø—Ä–∏—à–µ–ª - –ø–µ—Ä–≤—ã–π —É—à–µ–ª". –°—É—â–µ—Å—Ç–≤—É–µ—Ç –Ω–µ—Å–∫–æ–ª—å–∫–æ —Å–ø–æ—Å–æ–±–æ–≤ —Ä–µ–∞–ª–∏–∑–æ–≤–∞—Ç—å —Å—Ç–µ–∫ –≤ Python, –Ω–æ –¥–≤–∞ –Ω–∞–∏–±–æ–ª–µ–µ –ø—Ä–∞–∫—Ç–∏—á–Ω—ã—Ö –ø–æ–¥—Ö–æ–¥–∞ - –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑–æ–≤–∞—Ç—å –≤—Å—Ç—Ä–æ–µ–Ω–Ω—É—é —Å—Ç—Ä—É–∫—Ç—É—Ä—É —Å–ø–∏—Å–∫–∞ Python –∏–ª–∏ –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑–æ–≤–∞—Ç—å –∫–ª–∞—Å—Å collections.deque ().

–í —ç—Ç–æ–º —Ä—É–∫–æ–≤–æ–¥—Å—Ç–≤–µ —Å–æ —Å—Å—ã–ª–∫–æ–π –Ω–∞ –ø—Ä–∏–º–µ—Ä—ã –æ–±—Å—É–∂–¥–∞–ª–æ—Å—å, –∫–∞–∫ —Å–æ–∑–¥–∞—Ç—å —Å—Ç–µ–∫ –≤ Python —Å –ø–æ–º–æ—â—å—é —Å–ø–∏—Å–∫–æ–≤ –∏ collections.deque (). –¢–µ–ø–µ—Ä—å –≤—ã –≥–æ—Ç–æ–≤—ã –ø—Ä–∏—Å—Ç—É–ø–∏—Ç—å –∫ —Å–æ–∑–¥–∞–Ω–∏—é —Å–æ–±—Å—Ç–≤–µ–Ω–Ω—ã—Ö —Å—Ç–µ–∫–æ–≤, –∫–∞–∫ –ø—Ä–æ—Ñ–µ—Å—Å–∏–æ–Ω–∞–ª—å–Ω—ã–π —Ä–∞–∑—Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç—á–∏–∫ Python!

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