Как удалить дубликаты из списка в Python

–í—ã –º–æ–∂–µ—Ç–µ —É–¥–∞–ª–∏—Ç—å –¥—É–±–ª–∏–∫–∞—Ç—ã –∏–∑ Python, –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑—É—è dict.fromkeys (), –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä—ã–π –≥–µ–Ω–µ—Ä–∏—Ä—É–µ—Ç —Å–ª–æ–≤–∞—Ä—å, —É–¥–∞–ª—è—é—â–∏–π –ª—é–±—ã–µ –ø–æ–≤—Ç–æ—Ä—è—é—â–∏–µ—Å—è –∑–Ω–∞—á–µ–Ω–∏—è. –í—ã —Ç–∞–∫–∂–µ –º–æ–∂–µ—Ç–µ –ø—Ä–µ–æ–±—Ä–∞–∑–æ–≤–∞—Ç—å —Å–ø–∏—Å–æ–∫ –≤ –Ω–∞–±–æ—Ä. –í—ã –¥–æ–ª–∂–Ω—ã –ø—Ä–µ–æ–±—Ä–∞–∑–æ–≤–∞—Ç—å —Å–ª–æ–≤–∞—Ä—å –∏–ª–∏ –≤–µ—Ä–Ω—É—Ç—å –µ–≥–æ –≤ —Å–ø–∏—Å–æ–∫, —á—Ç–æ–±—ã —É–≤–∏–¥–µ—Ç—å —Å–ø–∏—Å–æ–∫, –¥—É–±–ª–∏–∫–∞—Ç—ã –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä–æ–≥–æ –±—ã–ª–∏ —É–¥–∞–ª–µ–Ω—ã.

–ö–æ–≥–¥–∞ –≤—ã —Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∞–µ—Ç–µ —Å–æ —Å–ø–∏—Å–∫–æ–º –≤ Python, –º–æ–∂–µ—Ç –≤–æ–∑–Ω–∏–∫–Ω—É—Ç—å —Å–∏—Ç—É–∞—Ü–∏—è, –∫–æ–≥–¥–∞ –≤—ã —Ö–æ—Ç–∏—Ç–µ —É–¥–∞–ª–∏—Ç—å –¥—É–±–ª–∏–∫–∞—Ç—ã –∏–∑ —Å–ø–∏—Å–∫–∞. –ù–∞–ø—Ä–∏–º–µ—Ä, –ø—Ä–µ–¥–ø–æ–ª–æ–∂–∏–º, —á—Ç–æ –≤—ã —à–µ—Ñ-–ø–æ–≤–∞—Ä, –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä—ã–π –æ–±—ä–µ–¥–∏–Ω—è–µ—Ç —Å—Ç–∞—Ä–æ–µ –∏ –Ω–æ–≤–æ–µ –º–µ–Ω—é –¥–ª—è —Å–≤–æ–µ–≥–æ —Ä–µ—Å—Ç–æ—Ä–∞–Ω–∞. –í—ã –º–æ–∂–µ—Ç–µ —É–¥–∞–ª–∏—Ç—å –ª—é–±—ã–µ –¥—É–±–ª–∏–∫–∞—Ç—ã, –≤–æ–∑–Ω–∏–∫–∞—é—â–∏–µ –ø—Ä–∏ –æ–±—ä–µ–¥–∏–Ω–µ–Ω–∏–∏ –¥–≤—É—Ö –º–µ–Ω—é.

–í —ç—Ç–æ–º —Ä—É–∫–æ–≤–æ–¥—Å—Ç–≤–µ —Ä–∞—Å—Å–º–∞—Ç—Ä–∏–≤–∞–µ—Ç—Å—è –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑–æ–≤–∞–Ω–∏–µ –º–µ—Ç–æ–¥–∞ dict.fromkeys () –¥–ª—è –ø—Ä–µ–æ–±—Ä–∞–∑–æ–≤–∞–Ω–∏—è —Å–ø–∏—Å–∫–∞ –≤ –Ω–∞–±–æ—Ä. –ú—ã –æ–±—Å—É–¥–∏–º, –∫–∞–∫ –ø—Ä–µ–æ–±—Ä–∞–∑–æ–≤–∞—Ç—å –≤—ã—Ö–æ–¥–Ω—ã–µ –¥–∞–Ω–Ω—ã–µ —ç—Ç–∏—Ö –¥–≤—É—Ö –º–µ—Ç–æ–¥–æ–≤ –æ–±—Ä–∞—Ç–Ω–æ –≤ —Å–ø–∏—Å–æ–∫, —á—Ç–æ–±—ã –≤—ã –º–æ–≥–ª–∏ –∏–Ω—Ç–µ—Ä–ø—Ä–µ—Ç–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞—Ç—å —Å–≤–æ–∏ –¥–∞–Ω–Ω—ã–µ –∫–∞–∫ —Å–ø–∏—Å–æ–∫.

Python –£–¥–∞–ª—è–µ—Ç –¥—É–±–ª–∏–∫–∞—Ç—ã –∏–∑ —Å–ø–∏—Å–∫–∞

–í—ã –º–æ–∂–µ—Ç–µ —É–¥–∞–ª–∏—Ç—å –¥—É–±–ª–∏—Ä—É–µ—Ç—Å—è —Å –ø–æ–º–æ—â—å—é –Ω–∞–±–æ—Ä–∞ Python –∏–ª–∏ –º–µ—Ç–æ–¥–∞ dict.fromkeys ().

–ú–µ—Ç–æ–¥ dict.fromkeys () –ø—Ä–µ–æ–±—Ä–∞–∑—É–µ—Ç —Å–ø–∏—Å–æ–∫ –≤ —Å–ª–æ–≤–∞—Ä—å. –°–ª–æ–≤–∞—Ä–∏ –Ω–µ –º–æ–≥—É—Ç —Å–æ–¥–µ—Ä–∂–∞—Ç—å –ø–æ–≤—Ç–æ—Ä—è—é—â–∏–µ—Å—è –∑–Ω–∞—á–µ–Ω–∏—è, –ø–æ—ç—Ç–æ–º—É dict.fromkeys () –≤–æ–∑–≤—Ä–∞—â–∞–µ—Ç —Å–ª–æ–≤–∞—Ä—å —Ç–æ–ª—å–∫–æ —Å —É–Ω–∏–∫–∞–ª—å–Ω—ã–º–∏ –∑–Ω–∞—á–µ–Ω–∏—è–º–∏.

–ù–∞–±–æ—Ä—ã, –∫–∞–∫ –∏ —Å–ª–æ–≤–∞—Ä–∏, –Ω–µ –º–æ–≥—É—Ç —Å–æ–¥–µ—Ä–∂–∞—Ç—å –ø–æ–≤—Ç–æ—Ä—è—é—â–∏–µ—Å—è –∑–Ω–∞—á–µ–Ω–∏—è. –ï—Å–ª–∏ –º—ã –ø—Ä–µ–æ–±—Ä–∞–∑–æ–≤—ã–≤–∞–µ–º —Å–ø–∏—Å–æ–∫ –≤ –Ω–∞–±–æ—Ä, –≤—Å–µ –¥—É–±–ª–∏–∫–∞—Ç—ã —É–¥–∞–ª—è—é—Ç—Å—è.

Python –£–¥–∞–ª—è–µ—Ç –¥—É–±–ª–∏–∫–∞—Ç—ã –∏–∑ —Å–ø–∏—Å–∫–∞: dict.fromkeys ()

–°–ª–æ–≤–∞—Ä–∏ Python —Ö—Ä–∞–Ω—è—Ç –¥–∞–Ω–Ω—ã–µ –≤ –≤–∏–¥–µ —Å—Ç—Ä—É–∫—Ç—É—Ä—ã" –∫–ª—é—á-–∑–Ω–∞—á–µ–Ω–∏–µ ". –°–ª–æ–≤–∞—Ä–∏ —Å–æ–ø–æ—Å—Ç–∞–≤–ª—è—é—Ç –∫–ª—é—á–∏ —Å–æ –∑–Ω–∞—á–µ–Ω–∏—è–º–∏ –∏ —Å–æ–∑–¥–∞—é—Ç –ø–∞—Ä—É, –≤ –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä–æ–π —Ö—Ä–∞–Ω—è—Ç—Å—è –¥–∞–Ω–Ω—ã–µ –≤ Python.

–°–ª–æ–≤–∞—Ä–∏ –≤ Python –Ω–µ –º–æ–≥—É—Ç —Å–æ–¥–µ—Ä–∂–∞—Ç—å –ø–æ–≤—Ç–æ—Ä—è—é—â–∏–µ—Å—è –∫–ª—é—á–∏. –ï—Å–ª–∏ –º—ã –ø—Ä–µ–æ–±—Ä–∞–∑—É–µ–º –Ω–∞—à —Å–ø–∏—Å–æ–∫ –≤ —Å–ª–æ–≤–∞—Ä—å, –æ–Ω —É–¥–∞–ª–∏—Ç –≤—Å–µ –ø–æ–≤—Ç–æ—Ä—è—é—â–∏–µ—Å—è –∑–Ω–∞—á–µ–Ω–∏—è. –í–æ—Ç –≥–¥–µ –ø—Ä–∏–≥–æ–¥–∏—Ç—Å—è –º–µ—Ç–æ–¥ fromkeys ().

81% —É—á–∞—Å—Ç–Ω–∏–∫–æ–≤ –∑–∞—è–≤–∏–ª–∏, —á—Ç–æ –æ–Ω–∏ –ø–æ—á—É–≤—Å—Ç–≤–æ–≤–∞–ª–∏ —Å–µ–±—è –±–æ–ª–µ–µ —É–≤–µ—Ä–µ–Ω–Ω—ã–º–∏ –≤ —Å–≤–æ–∏—Ö –ø–µ—Ä—Å–ø–µ–∫—Ç–∏–≤–∞—Ö —Ç—Ä—É–¥–æ—É—Å—Ç—Ä–æ–π—Å—Ç–≤–∞ –≤ —Å—Ñ–µ—Ä–µ –≤—ã—Å–æ–∫–∏—Ö —Ç–µ—Ö–Ω–æ–ª–æ–≥–∏–π –ø–æ—Å–ª–µ –ø–æ—Å–µ—â–µ–Ω–∏—è —É—á–µ–±–Ω–æ–≥–æ –ª–∞–≥–µ—Ä—è. –ü—Ä–æ–π–¥–∏—Ç–µ –∫—É—Ä—Å –æ–±—É—á–µ–Ω–∏—è —Å–µ–≥–æ–¥–Ω—è.

–°—Ä–µ–¥–Ω–∏–π –≤—ã–ø—É—Å–∫–Ω–∏–∫ —É—á–µ–±–Ω–æ–≥–æ –ª–∞–≥–µ—Ä—è –ø–æ—Ç—Ä–∞—Ç–∏–ª –º–µ–Ω–µ–µ —à–µ—Å—Ç–∏ –º–µ—Å—è—Ü–µ–≤ –Ω–∞ –ø–µ—Ä–µ—Ö–æ–¥–Ω—É—é –∫–∞—Ä—å–µ—Ä—É, –æ—Ç –Ω–∞—á–∞–ª–∞ —É—á–µ–±–Ω–æ–≥–æ –ª–∞–≥–µ—Ä—è –¥–æ –ø–æ–∏—Å–∫–∞ —Å–≤–æ–µ–π –ø–µ—Ä–≤–æ–π —Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç—ã.

fromkeys () - —ç—Ç–æ –≤—Å—Ç—Ä–æ–µ–Ω–Ω–∞—è —Ñ—É–Ω–∫—Ü–∏—è, –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä–∞—è –≥–µ–Ω–µ—Ä–∏—Ä—É–µ—Ç —Å–ª–æ–≤–∞—Ä—å –∏–∑ —É–∫–∞–∑–∞–Ω–Ω—ã—Ö –≤–∞–º–∏ –∫–ª—é—á–µ–π. –ü–æ—Å–∫–æ–ª—å–∫—É —Å–ª–æ–≤–∞—Ä–∏ –Ω–µ –º–æ–≥—É—Ç —Å–æ–¥–µ—Ä–∂–∞—Ç—å –ø–æ–≤—Ç–æ—Ä—è—é—â–∏–µ—Å—è –∫–ª—é—á–∏, —Ñ—É–Ω–∫—Ü–∏—è —É–¥–∞–ª–∏—Ç –≤—Å–µ –ø–æ–≤—Ç–æ—Ä—è—é—â–∏–µ—Å—è –∑–Ω–∞—á–µ–Ω–∏—è –∏–∑ –Ω–∞—à–µ–≥–æ —Å–ø–∏—Å–∫–∞. –ó–∞—Ç–µ–º –º—ã –º–æ–∂–µ–º –ø—Ä–µ–æ–±—Ä–∞–∑–æ–≤–∞—Ç—å –Ω–∞—à —Å–ª–æ–≤–∞—Ä—å –æ–±—Ä–∞—Ç–Ω–æ –≤ —Å–ø–∏—Å–æ–∫.

–°–∏–Ω—Ç–∞–∫—Å–∏—Å –º–µ—Ç–æ–¥–∞ fromkeys () —Å–ª–µ–¥—É—é—â–∏–π:

fromkeys –ø—Ä–∏–Ω–∏–º–∞–µ—Ç –¥–≤–∞ –ø–∞—Ä–∞–º–µ—Ç—Ä–∞: –∫–ª—é—á–∏ –∏ –∑–Ω–∞—á–µ–Ω–∏–µ. –ü–∞—Ä–∞–º–µ—Ç—Ä –∫–ª—é—á–µ–π —è–≤–ª—è–µ—Ç—Å—è –∏—Ç–µ—Ä–∞—Ç–∏–≤–Ω—ã–º, –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä—ã–π —É–∫–∞–∑—ã–≤–∞–µ—Ç –∫–ª—é—á–∏ –Ω–æ–≤–æ–≥–æ —Å–ª–æ–≤–∞—Ä—è, –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä—ã–π –≤—ã —Ö–æ—Ç–∏—Ç–µ —Å–æ–∑–¥–∞—Ç—å. –ù–∞—à –ø–∞—Ä–∞–º–µ—Ç—Ä –∑–Ω–∞—á–µ–Ω–∏—è —è–≤–ª—è–µ—Ç—Å—è –Ω–µ–æ–±—è–∑–∞—Ç–µ–ª—å–Ω—ã–º –∏ —Å–æ–¥–µ—Ä–∂–∏—Ç –∑–Ω–∞—á–µ–Ω–∏–µ –¥–ª—è –≤—Å–µ—Ö –∫–ª—é—á–µ–π. –í —ç—Ç–æ–º –ø—Ä–∏–º–µ—Ä–µ –Ω–∞–º –Ω–µ –Ω—É–∂–µ–Ω —ç—Ç–æ—Ç –ø–∞—Ä–∞–º–µ—Ç—Ä, –ø–æ—ç—Ç–æ–º—É –º—ã –µ–≥–æ –ø—Ä–æ–∏–≥–Ω–æ—Ä–∏—Ä—É–µ–º. .

–î–æ–ø—É—Å—Ç–∏–º, –º—ã —à–µ—Ñ-–ø–æ–≤–∞—Ä, –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä—ã–π –æ–±—ä–µ–¥–∏–Ω—è–µ—Ç —Å—Ç–∞—Ä–æ–µ –∏ –Ω–æ–≤–æ–µ –º–µ–Ω—é –ø–∏—Ü—Ü—ã –≤ –æ–¥–Ω–æ –±–æ–ª—å—à–æ–µ –º–µ–Ω—é. –ù–æ–≤–æ–µ –º–µ–Ω—é –≤–∫–ª—é—á–∞–µ—Ç –≤ —Å–µ–±—è —Ä—è–¥ –Ω–æ–≤—ã—Ö –ø–∏—Ü—Ü, –Ω–∞–¥ –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä—ã–º–∏ –º—ã —Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∞–ª–∏ –≤ —Ç–µ—á–µ–Ω–∏–µ –Ω–µ—Å–∫–æ–ª—å–∫–∏—Ö –º–µ—Å—è—Ü–µ–≤. –ù–æ , –º—ã —Ö–æ—Ç–∏–º –ø—Ä–µ–¥–ª–æ–∂–∏—Ç—å –ø–∏—Ü—Ü—É –≤ —Å—Ç–∞—Ä–æ–º –º–µ–Ω—é. –ú—ã –Ω–µ —Ö–æ—Ç–∏–º, —á—Ç–æ–±—ã –≤ –º–µ–Ω—é –ø–æ—è–≤–ª—è–ª–∏—Å—å –¥—É–±–ª–∏–∫–∞—Ç—ã, –ø–æ—Å–∫–æ–ª—å–∫—É —ç—Ç–æ –º–æ–≥–ª–æ –±—ã —Å–±–∏—Ç—å —Å —Ç–æ–ª–∫—É –∫–ª–∏–µ–Ω—Ç–æ–≤.

< p> –ß—Ç–æ–±—ã —É–¥–∞–ª–∏—Ç—å –ª—é–±—ã–µ –¥—É–±–ª–∏–∫–∞—Ç—ã, –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä—ã–µ –º–æ–≥—É—Ç —Å—É—â–µ—Å—Ç–≤–æ–≤–∞—Ç—å –≤ –Ω–æ–≤–æ–º –º–µ–Ω—é, –º—ã –º–æ–≥–ª–∏ –±—ã –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑–æ–≤–∞—Ç—å —Å–ª–µ–¥—É—é—â–∏–π –∫–æ–¥:

–ù–∞—à –∫–æ–¥ —É–¥–∞–ª—è–µ—Ç –Ω–∞—à–∏ –ø–æ–≤—Ç–æ—Ä—è—é—â–∏–µ—Å—è —ç–ª–µ–º–µ–Ω—Ç—ã –∏ –≤–æ–∑–≤—Ä–∞—â–∞–µ—Ç:

–í –ø–µ—Ä–≤–æ–π —Å—Ç—Ä–æ–∫–µ –º—ã –æ–±—ä—è–≤–ª—è–µ–º –ø–µ—Ä–µ–º–µ–Ω–Ω—É—é Python —Å –∏–º–µ–Ω–µ–º new_menu, –≤ –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä–æ–π —Ö—Ä–∞–Ω—è—Ç—Å—è –≤—Å–µ –ø–∏—Ü—Ü—ã –≤ –Ω–æ–≤–æ–º –º–µ–Ω—é. –û–±—Ä–∞—Ç–∏—Ç–µ –≤–Ω–∏–º–∞–Ω–∏–µ, —á—Ç–æ —ç—Ç–æ—Ç —Å–ø–∏—Å–æ–∫ —Å–æ–¥–µ—Ä–∂–∏—Ç –ø–æ–≤—Ç–æ—Ä—è—é—â–∏–µ—Å—è –∑–Ω–∞—á–µ–Ω–∏—è & mdash; –∏ Sausage, –∏ Hawaiian –¥–≤–∞–∂–¥—ã –ø–æ—è–≤–ª—è—é—Ç—Å—è –≤ —Å–ø–∏—Å–∫–∞—Ö Python.

–ú—ã –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑—É–µ–º –º–µ—Ç–æ–¥ dict.fromkeys () –¥–ª—è —Å–æ–∑–¥–∞–Ω–∏—è —Å–ª–æ–≤–∞—Ä—å –∏–∑ –Ω–∞—à–µ–π –ø–µ—Ä–µ–º–µ–Ω–Ω–æ–π new_menu. –ó–∞—Ç–µ–º –º—ã –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑—É–µ–º list () –¥–ª—è –ø—Ä–µ–æ–±—Ä–∞–∑–æ–≤–∞–Ω–∏—è –Ω–∞—à–∏—Ö –¥–∞–Ω–Ω—ã—Ö –∏–∑ —Å–ª–æ–≤–∞—Ä—è –≤ –º–∞—Å—Å–∏–≤ Python –∏–ª–∏ —Å–ø–∏—Å–æ–∫. –í –ø–æ—Å–ª–µ–¥–Ω–µ–π —Å—Ç—Ä–æ–∫–µ –∫–æ–¥–∞ –º—ã —Ä–∞—Å–ø–µ—á–∞—Ç—ã–≤–∞–µ–º –Ω–∞—à –∏–∑–º–µ–Ω–µ–Ω–Ω—ã–π —Å–ø–∏—Å–æ–∫.

–ö–∞–∫ –≤–∏–¥–∏—Ç–µ, –Ω–∞—à–∞ –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∞ —É–¥–∞–ª–∏–ª–∞ –ø–æ–≤—Ç–æ—Ä—è—é—â–∏–µ—Å—è –∑–Ω–∞—á–µ–Ω–∏—è –∏–∑ –Ω–∞—à–∏—Ö –¥–∞–Ω–Ω—ã—Ö, –∏ Sausage –∏ Hawaiian –ø–æ—è–≤–ª—è—é—Ç—Å—è –æ–¥–∏–Ω —Ä–∞–∑ –≤ –Ω–∞—à –Ω–æ–≤—ã–π —Å–ø–∏—Å–æ–∫.

–£–¥–∞–ª–µ–Ω–∏–µ –¥—É–±–ª–∏–∫–∞—Ç–æ–≤ –∏–∑ —Å–ø–∏—Å–∫–∞ Python: –Ω–∞–±–æ—Ä—ã

–æ–±—ä–µ–∫—Ç –Ω–∞–±–æ—Ä–∞ Python - —ç—Ç–æ —Å—Ç—Ä—É–∫—Ç—É—Ä–∞ –¥–∞–Ω–Ω—ã—Ö, –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä–∞—è —è–≤–ª—è–µ—Ç—Å—è –∫–∞–∫ –Ω–µ—É–ø–æ—Ä—è–¥–æ—á–µ–Ω–Ω—ã–º, —Ç–∞–∫ –∏ –Ω–µ–∏–Ω–¥–µ–∫—Å–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–Ω—ã–º. –ù–∞–±–æ—Ä—ã —Ö—Ä–∞–Ω—è—Ç –∫–æ–ª–ª–µ–∫—Ü–∏–∏ —É–Ω–∏–∫–∞–ª—å–Ω—ã—Ö —ç–ª–µ–º–µ–Ω—Ç–æ–≤ –≤ Python. –í –æ—Ç–ª–∏—á–∏–µ –æ—Ç —Å–ø–∏—Å–∫–æ–≤, –Ω–∞–±–æ—Ä—ã –Ω–µ –º–æ–≥—É—Ç —Ö—Ä–∞–Ω–∏—Ç—å –ø–æ–≤—Ç–æ—Ä—è—é—â–∏–µ—Å—è –∑–Ω–∞—á–µ–Ω–∏—è.

–ò—Ç–∞–∫, –ø–æ—Å–∫–æ–ª—å–∫—É –Ω–∞–±–æ—Ä—ã –Ω–µ –º–æ–≥—É—Ç —Ö—Ä–∞–Ω–∏—Ç—å –ø–æ–≤—Ç–æ—Ä—è—é—â–∏–µ—Å—è —ç–ª–µ–º–µ–Ω—Ç—ã, –º—ã –º–æ–∂–µ–º –ø—Ä–µ–æ–±—Ä–∞–∑–æ–≤–∞—Ç—å –Ω–∞—à —Å–ø–∏—Å–æ–∫ –≤ –Ω–∞–±–æ—Ä –¥–ª—è –∏—Ö —É–¥–∞–ª–µ–Ω–∏—è. –í Python –Ω–∞–±–æ—Ä—ã –ø—Ä–µ–¥—Å—Ç–∞–≤–ª—è—é—Ç —Å–æ–±–æ–π —Å–ø–∏—Å–æ–∫ —ç–ª–µ–º–µ–Ω—Ç–æ–≤, —Ä–∞–∑–¥–µ–ª–µ–Ω–Ω—ã—Ö –∑–∞–ø—è—Ç—ã–º–∏, –∑–∞–∫–ª—é—á–µ–Ω–Ω—ã—Ö –≤ —Ñ–∏–≥—É—Ä–Ω—ã–µ —Å–∫–æ–±–∫–∏. –í–æ—Ç –ø—Ä–∏–º–µ—Ä –Ω–∞–±–æ—Ä–∞ –≤ Python, –≤ –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä–æ–º —Ö—Ä–∞–Ω–∏—Ç—Å—è —Å–ø–∏—Å–æ–∫ –ø–∏—Ü—Ü:

–£–¥–∞–ª–µ–Ω–∏–µ –¥—É–±–ª–∏–∫–∞—Ç–æ–≤ —Å –ø–æ–º–æ—â—å—é –ø—Ä–∏–º–µ—Ä–∞ –Ω–∞–±–æ—Ä–∞

–î–∞–≤–∞–π—Ç–µ –≤–æ–∑—å–º–µ–º –Ω–∞—à –ø—Ä–∏–º–µ—Ä —Å–≤–µ—Ä—Ö—É, —á—Ç–æ–±—ã –ø—Ä–æ–∏–ª–ª—é—Å—Ç—Ä–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞—Ç—å, –∫–∞–∫ –Ω–∞–±–æ—Ä—ã –º–æ–≥—É—Ç –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑–æ–≤–∞—Ç—å—Å—è –¥–ª—è —É–¥–∞–ª–µ–Ω–∏—è –ø–æ–≤—Ç–æ—Ä—è—é—â–∏—Ö—Å—è –∑–Ω–∞—á–µ–Ω–∏–π –∏–∑ —Å–ø–∏—Å–∫–∞.

–°–∫–∞–∂–µ–º, —á—Ç–æ –º—ã - –ø–æ–≤–∞—Ä –ø–æ –ø–∏—Ü—Ü–µ, –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä—ã–π —Ö–æ—á–µ—Ç –æ–±—ä–µ–¥–∏–Ω–∏—Ç—å –∫–∞–∫ —Å—Ç–∞—Ä–æ–µ, —Ç–∞–∫ –∏ –Ω–æ–≤–æ–µ –º–µ–Ω—é. –ù–æ –º–µ–∂–¥—É —ç—Ç–∏–º–∏ –º–µ–Ω—é –º–æ–≥—É—Ç –±—ã—Ç—å –¥—É–±–ª–∏–∫–∞—Ç—ã, –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä—ã–µ –º—ã –∑–∞—Ö–æ—Ç–∏–º —É–¥–∞–ª–∏—Ç—å –ø–µ—Ä–µ–¥ —Å–æ–∑–¥–∞–Ω–∏–µ–º –Ω–∞—à–µ–≥–æ –æ–∫–æ–Ω—á–∞—Ç–µ–ª—å–Ω–æ–≥–æ –º–µ–Ω—é. –ß—Ç–æ–±—ã —É–¥–∞–ª–∏—Ç—å —ç—Ç–∏ –¥—É–±–ª–∏–∫–∞—Ç—ã, –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑—É—è –ø–æ–¥—Ö–æ–¥ –Ω–∞–±–æ—Ä–∞, –º—ã –º–æ–≥–ª–∏ –±—ã –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑–æ–≤–∞—Ç—å —Å–ª–µ–¥—É—é—â–∏–π –∫–æ–¥:

–í–æ—Ç –Ω–∞—à —Å–ø–∏—Å–æ–∫ –ø–æ—Å–ª–µ —É–¥–∞–ª–µ–Ω–∏—è –ø–æ–≤—Ç–æ—Ä—è—é—â–∏—Ö—Å—è –∑–Ω–∞—á–µ–Ω–∏–π:

–ù–∞ –í –Ω–∞—á–∞–ª–µ –Ω–∞—à–µ–π –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º—ã –º—ã –æ–±—ä—è–≤–ª—è–µ–º —Å–ø–∏—Å–æ–∫ —Å –∏–º–µ–Ω–µ–º new_menu, –≤ –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä–æ–º —Ö—Ä–∞–Ω—è—Ç—Å—è –≤—Å–µ –ø–∏—Ü—Ü—ã –≤ –Ω–æ–≤–æ–º –º–µ–Ω—é.

–ó–∞—Ç–µ–º –º—ã –æ–±—ä—è–≤–ª—è–µ–º –ø–µ—Ä–µ–º–µ–Ω–Ω—É—é —Å –∏–º–µ–Ω–µ–º final_new_menu –≤ –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä–æ–º —Ö—Ä–∞–Ω–∏—Ç—Å—è –Ω–∞—à–µ –æ–±–Ω–æ–≤–ª–µ–Ω–Ω–æ–µ –º–µ–Ω—é. –≠—Ç–∞ –ø–µ—Ä–µ–º–µ–Ω–Ω–∞—è –ø—Ä–µ–æ–±—Ä–∞–∑—É–µ—Ç –ø–µ—Ä–µ–º–µ–Ω–Ω—É—é new_menu –≤ –Ω–∞–±–æ—Ä —Å –ø–æ–º–æ—â—å—é set (), –∞ –∑–∞—Ç–µ–º –ø—Ä–µ–æ–±—Ä–∞–∑—É–µ—Ç –Ω–∞–±–æ—Ä –æ–±—Ä–∞—Ç–Ω–æ –≤ —Å–ø–∏—Å–æ–∫ —Å –ø–æ–º–æ—â—å—é list (). –≠—Ç–æ—Ç –ø—Ä–æ—Ü–µ—Å—Å —É–¥–∞–ª—è–µ—Ç –≤—Å–µ –ø–æ–≤—Ç–æ—Ä—è—é—â–∏–µ—Å—è –∑–Ω–∞—á–µ–Ω–∏—è –≤ –Ω–∞—à–µ–π –ø–µ—Ä–µ–º–µ–Ω–Ω–æ–π new_menu.

–ù–∞–∫–æ–Ω–µ—Ü, –Ω–∞—à–∞ –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∞ –≤—ã–≤–æ–¥–∏—Ç –Ω–æ–≤–æ–µ –º–µ–Ω—é –Ω–∞ –∫–æ–Ω—Å–æ–ª—å. –ü–æ—è–≤–ª—è—é—Ç—Å—è –≤—Å–µ —É–Ω–∏–∫–∞–ª—å–Ω—ã–µ —ç–ª–µ–º–µ–Ω—Ç—ã –∏–∑ –∏—Å—Ö–æ–¥–Ω–æ–≥–æ –æ–±—ä–µ–∫—Ç–∞ —Å–ø–∏—Å–∫–∞. –¢–µ–ø–µ—Ä—å —É –Ω–∞—Å –µ—Å—Ç—å —É–Ω–∏–∫–∞–ª—å–Ω—ã–π —Å–ø–∏—Å–æ–∫.



–ó–∞–∫–ª—é—á–µ–Ω–∏–µ

–£–¥–∞–ª–µ–Ω–∏–µ –ø–æ–≤—Ç–æ—Ä—è—é—â–∏—Ö—Å—è —ç–ª–µ–º–µ–Ω—Ç–æ–≤ –∏–∑ —Å–ø–∏—Å–∫–∞ - –æ–±—ã—á–Ω–∞—è –æ–ø–µ—Ä–∞—Ü–∏—è –≤ Python. –ù–µ —Å—É—â–µ—Å—Ç–≤—É–µ—Ç –æ—Ñ–∏—Ü–∏–∞–ª—å–Ω–æ–≥–æ –º–µ—Ç–æ–¥–∞, –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä—ã–π —Å–ª–µ–¥—É–µ—Ç –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑–æ–≤–∞—Ç—å –¥–ª—è —É–¥–∞–ª–µ–Ω–∏—è –¥—É–±–ª–∏–∫–∞—Ç–æ–≤ –∏–∑ —Å–ø–∏—Å–∫–∞. –ù–∞–∏–±–æ–ª–µ–µ —Ä–∞—Å–ø—Ä–æ—Å—Ç—Ä–∞–Ω–µ–Ω–Ω—ã–º–∏ –ø–æ–¥—Ö–æ–¥–∞–º–∏ —è–≤–ª—è—é—Ç—Å—è –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑–æ–≤–∞–Ω–∏–µ —Ñ—É–Ω–∫—Ü–∏–∏ —Å–ª–æ–≤–∞—Ä—è fromkeys () –∏–ª–∏ –ø—Ä–µ–æ–±—Ä–∞–∑–æ–≤–∞–Ω–∏–µ –≤–∞—à–∏—Ö –¥–∞–Ω–Ω—ã—Ö –≤ –Ω–∞–±–æ—Ä .

"–ö–∞—Ä—å–µ—Ä–∞ –ö–∞—Ä–º–∞ –≤–æ—à–ª–∞ –≤ –º–æ—é –∂–∏–∑–Ω—å —Ç–æ–≥–¥–∞, –∫–æ–≥–¥–∞ —è –≤ –Ω–µ–π –±–æ–ª—å—à–µ –≤—Å–µ–≥–æ –Ω—É–∂–¥–∞–ª–∞—Å—å, –∏ –±—ã—Å—Ç—Ä–æ –ø–æ–º–æ–≥–ª–∞ –º–Ω–µ –ø—Ä–æ–≤–µ—Å—Ç–∏ –±—É—Ç–∫–µ–º–ø. –ß–µ—Ä–µ–∑ –¥–≤–∞ –º–µ—Å—è—Ü–∞ –ø–æ—Å–ª–µ –≤—ã–ø—É—Å–∫–∞ —è –Ω–∞—à–ª–∞ —Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç—É —Å–≤–æ–µ–π –º–µ—á—Ç—ã, –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä–∞—è —Å–æ–æ—Ç–≤–µ—Ç—Å—Ç–≤–æ–≤–∞–ª–∞ –º–æ–∏–º —Ü–µ–Ω–Ω–æ—Å—Ç—è–º –∏ —Ü–µ–ª—è–º –≤ –∂–∏–∑–Ω–∏! "

–í–µ–Ω–µ—Ä–∞, –∏–Ω–∂–µ–Ω–µ—Ä-–ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∏—Å—Ç –≤ Rockbot

< p> –í —ç—Ç–æ–º —Ä—É–∫–æ–≤–æ–¥—Å—Ç–≤–µ –º—ã –æ–±—Å—É–¥–∏–ª–∏, –∫–∞–∫ –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑–æ–≤–∞—Ç—å —Å–ª–æ–≤–∞—Ä–Ω—É—é —Ñ—É–Ω–∫—Ü–∏—é fromkeys () –∏ –Ω–∞–±–æ—Ä—ã –¥–ª—è —É–¥–∞–ª–µ–Ω–∏—è –¥—É–±–ª–∏–∫–∞—Ç–æ–≤ –∏–∑ —Å–ø–∏—Å–∫–∞ –≤ Python.

–ß—Ç–æ–±—ã —É–∑–Ω–∞—Ç—å –±–æ–ª—å—à–µ –æ –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–∏–∏ –Ω–∞ Python, –ø—Ä–æ—á—Ç–∏—Ç–µ –Ω–∞—à–µ —Ä—É–∫–æ–≤–æ–¥—Å—Ç–≤–æ –ø–æ –∏–∑—É—á–µ–Ω–∏—é Python .

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