Файл чтения Python: пошаговое руководство

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–§—É–Ω–∫—Ü–∏—è open () –æ—Ç–∫—Ä—ã–≤–∞–µ—Ç —Ñ–∞–π–ª. –í—ã –¥–æ–ª–∂–Ω—ã –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑–æ–≤–∞—Ç—å " r " —Ä–µ–∂–∏–º —á—Ç–µ–Ω–∏—è —Ñ–∞–π–ª–∞. –§—É–Ω–∫—Ü–∏–∏ read (), readline (), readlines () –≤–æ–∑–≤—Ä–∞—â–∞—é—Ç —Å–æ–¥–µ—Ä–∂–∏–º–æ–µ —Ñ–∞–π–ª–∞, –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä—ã–π –≤—ã –æ—Ç–∫—Ä—ã–ª–∏.

Python - –ø–æ–ª–µ–∑–Ω—ã–π —è–∑—ã–∫ –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–∏—è, –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä—ã–π –º–æ–∂–Ω–æ –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑–æ–≤–∞—Ç—å, –µ—Å–ª–∏ –≤—ã —Ö–æ—Ç–∏—Ç–µ –æ–±—Ä–∞–±–∞—Ç—ã–≤–∞—Ç—å –¥–∞–Ω–Ω—ã–µ. –í —è–∑—ã–∫–µ –µ—Å—Ç—å –Ω–µ—Å–∫–æ–ª—å–∫–æ –≤—Å—Ç—Ä–æ–µ–Ω–Ω—ã—Ö —Ñ—É–Ω–∫—Ü–∏–π, –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä—ã–µ —É–ø—Ä–æ—â–∞—é—Ç —á—Ç–µ–Ω–∏–µ, –∑–∞–ø–∏—Å—å –∏ —É–ø—Ä–∞–≤–ª–µ–Ω–∏–µ –¥–∞–Ω–Ω—ã–º–∏ –∏–ª–∏ —Ñ–∞–π–ª–∞–º–∏.

–î–æ–ø—É—Å—Ç–∏–º, —É –≤–∞—Å –µ—Å—Ç—å —Å–ø–∏—Å–æ–∫ –∏–º–µ–Ω —Å–æ—Ç—Ä—É–¥–Ω–∏–∫–æ–≤, –∏ –≤—ã —Ö–æ—Ç–∏—Ç–µ –ø—Ä–æ–≤–µ—Ä–∏—Ç—å, –µ—Å—Ç—å –ª–∏ –∏–º—è –ø–æ–ª—å–∑–æ–≤–∞—Ç–µ–ª—è –Ω–∞—Ö–æ–¥–∏—Ç—Å—è –≤ —ç—Ç–æ–º —Å–ø–∏—Å–∫–µ. –í—ã –º–æ–∂–µ—Ç–µ —Å–æ—Ö—Ä–∞–Ω–∏—Ç—å —Å–ø–∏—Å–æ–∫ –∏–º–µ–Ω —Å–æ—Ç—Ä—É–¥–Ω–∏–∫–æ–≤ –≤ –≤–∏–¥–µ —Ñ–∞–π–ª–∞. –ó–∞—Ç–µ–º –≤—ã –º–æ–∂–µ—Ç–µ –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑–æ–≤–∞—Ç—å Python, —á—Ç–æ–±—ã –ø—Ä–æ—á–∏—Ç–∞—Ç—å —ç—Ç–æ—Ç —Ñ–∞–π–ª –∏ –ø—Ä–æ–≤–µ—Ä–∏—Ç—å, —Ö—Ä–∞–Ω–∏—Ç—Å—è –ª–∏ –∏–º—è —Å–æ—Ç—Ä—É–¥–Ω–∏–∫–∞ –≤ —ç—Ç–æ–º —Ñ–∞–π–ª–µ.

–í —ç—Ç–æ–º —Ä—É–∫–æ–≤–æ–¥—Å—Ç–≤–µ –º—ã —Å–æ–±–∏—Ä–∞–µ–º—Å—è –∏–∑—É—á–∏—Ç—å –æ—Å–Ω–æ–≤—ã —á—Ç–µ–Ω–∏—è —Ñ–∞–π–ª–æ–≤ –≤ Python. –î–ª—è –Ω–∞—á–∞–ª–∞ –º—ã –æ–±—Å—É–¥–∏–º, –∫–∞–∫ –æ—Ç–∫—Ä—ã—Ç—å —Ñ–∞–π–ª –∏ –ø–æ–ª—É—á–∏—Ç—å –∫ –Ω–µ–º—É –¥–æ—Å—Ç—É–ø. –ó–∞—Ç–µ–º –º—ã –ø–µ—Ä–µ–π–¥–µ–º –∫ –∏–∑—É—á–µ–Ω–∏—é —Ç–æ–≥–æ, –∫–∞–∫ —á–∏—Ç–∞—Ç—å —Ñ–∞–π–ª –≤ Python.

–û—Ç–∫—Ä—ã—Ç—å —Ñ–∞–π–ª –¥–ª—è —á—Ç–µ–Ω–∏—è –≤ Python

–ü–µ—Ä–≤—ã–º —à–∞–≥–æ–º –∫ —á—Ç–µ–Ω–∏—é —Ñ–∞–π–ª–∞ –≤ Python —è–≤–ª—è–µ—Ç—Å—è –æ—Ç–∫—Ä—ã—Ç–∏–µ —Ñ–∞–π–ª–∞, –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä—ã–π –≤—ã —Ö–æ—á—É –ø–æ—á–∏—Ç–∞—Ç—å. –í–∞–º –Ω—É–∂–Ω–æ —Å–æ–æ–±—â–∏—Ç—å Python –∏–º—è —Ñ–∞–π–ª–∞, –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä—ã–π –≤—ã —Ö–æ—Ç–∏—Ç–µ –æ—Ç–∫—Ä—ã—Ç—å.

–ß—Ç–æ–±—ã –ø—Ä–æ—á–∏—Ç–∞—Ç—å —Ñ–∞–π–ª, –≤—ã –¥–æ–ª–∂–Ω—ã —Å–Ω–∞—á–∞–ª–∞ —É–∫–∞–∑–∞—Ç—å Python, –≥–¥–µ –Ω–∞—Ö–æ–¥–∏—Ç—Å—è —ç—Ç–æ—Ç —Ñ–∞–π–ª. –í—ã –º–æ–∂–µ—Ç–µ —Å–¥–µ–ª–∞—Ç—å —ç—Ç–æ, —É–∫–∞–∑–∞–≤ –ø—É—Ç—å –∫ —Ñ–∞–π–ª—É –∏ –æ–±—ä—è–≤–∏–≤ –µ–≥–æ –≤ –ø–µ—Ä–µ–º–µ–Ω–Ω–æ–π.

–í–æ—Ç —Å–∏–Ω—Ç–∞–∫—Å–∏—Å –¥–ª—è –æ—Ç–∫—Ä—ã—Ç–∏—è —Ñ–∞–π–ª–∞ –≤ Python:

–ù–∞—à –∫–æ–¥ –æ—Ç–∫—Ä—ã–≤–∞–µ—Ç —Ñ–∞–π–ª –ø–æ –ø—É—Ç–∏, —É–∫–∞–∑–∞–Ω–Ω–æ–º—É –≤ " filename " –ø–µ—Ä–µ–º–µ–Ω–Ω–∞—è.

81% —É—á–∞—Å—Ç–Ω–∏–∫–æ–≤ –∑–∞—è–≤–∏–ª–∏, —á—Ç–æ –æ–Ω–∏ –ø–æ—á—É–≤—Å—Ç–≤–æ–≤–∞–ª–∏ —Å–µ–±—è –±–æ–ª–µ–µ —É–≤–µ—Ä–µ–Ω–Ω—ã–º–∏ –≤ —Å–≤–æ–∏—Ö –ø–µ—Ä—Å–ø–µ–∫—Ç–∏–≤–∞—Ö —Ç—Ä—É–¥–æ—É—Å—Ç—Ä–æ–π—Å—Ç–≤–∞ –≤ —Å—Ñ–µ—Ä–µ –≤—ã—Å–æ–∫–∏—Ö —Ç–µ—Ö–Ω–æ–ª–æ–≥–∏–π –ø–æ—Å–ª–µ –ø–æ—Å–µ—â–µ–Ω–∏—è —É—á–µ–±–Ω–æ–≥–æ –ª–∞–≥–µ—Ä—è. –ü—Ä–æ–π–¥–∏—Ç–µ –∫—É—Ä—Å –æ–±—É—á–µ–Ω–∏—è —Å–µ–≥–æ–¥–Ω—è.

–°—Ä–µ–¥–Ω–∏–π –≤—ã–ø—É—Å–∫–Ω–∏–∫ —É—á–µ–±–Ω–æ–≥–æ –ª–∞–≥–µ—Ä—è –ø–æ—Ç—Ä–∞—Ç–∏–ª –º–µ–Ω–µ–µ —à–µ—Å—Ç–∏ –º–µ—Å—è—Ü–µ–≤ –Ω–∞ –ø–µ—Ä–µ—Ö–æ–¥–Ω—É—é –∫–∞—Ä—å–µ—Ä—É, –æ—Ç –Ω–∞—á–∞–ª–∞ —É—á–µ–±–Ω–æ–≥–æ –ª–∞–≥–µ—Ä—è –¥–æ –ø–æ–∏—Å–∫–∞ —Å–≤–æ–µ–π –ø–µ—Ä–≤–æ–π —Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç—ã.

r < –§–ª–∞–≥ / em> –≤ –∫–æ–Ω—Ü–µ —Ñ—É–Ω–∫—Ü–∏–∏ open () —Å–æ–æ–±—â–∞–µ—Ç Python, —á—Ç–æ –º—ã —Ö–æ—Ç–∏–º —Ç–æ–ª—å–∫–æ –ø—Ä–æ—á–∏—Ç–∞—Ç—å –Ω–∞—à —Ñ–∞–π–ª. –ú—ã –º–æ–≥–ª–∏ –±—ã –∏–∑–º–µ–Ω–∏—Ç—å —ç—Ç–æ—Ç —Ñ–ª–∞–≥, –µ—Å–ª–∏ –±—ã —Ö–æ—Ç–µ–ª–∏ –æ—Ç—Ä–µ–¥–∞–∫—Ç–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞—Ç—å –Ω–∞—à —Ñ–∞–π–ª.

–§–∞–π–ª —á—Ç–µ–Ω–∏—è Python

–¢–µ–ø–µ—Ä—å, –∫–æ–≥–¥–∞ –Ω–∞—à —Ñ–∞–π–ª –æ—Ç–∫—Ä—ã—Ç, –º—ã –º–æ–∂–µ–º –ø—Ä–æ—á–∏—Ç–∞—Ç—å –µ–≥–æ —á–µ—Ä–µ–∑ Python. –ï—Å—Ç—å —Ç—Ä–∏ —Ñ—É–Ω–∫—Ü–∏–∏, –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä—ã–µ –º—ã –º–æ–∂–µ–º –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑–æ–≤–∞—Ç—å –¥–ª—è —á—Ç–µ–Ω–∏—è –¥–∞–Ω–Ω—ã—Ö –∏–∑ —Ñ–∞–π–ª–∞: —Å–ª–µ–¥—É–µ—Ç:

  • read (): –≤–æ–∑–≤—Ä–∞—â–∞–µ—Ç —Å–æ–¥–µ—Ä–∂–∏–º–æ–µ —Ñ–∞–π–ª–∞.
  • readline (): –≤–æ–∑–≤—Ä–∞—â–∞–µ—Ç —Å–ª–µ–¥—É—é—â–µ–µ —Å—Ç—Ä–æ–∫–∞ —Ñ–∞–π–ª–∞
  • readlines (): –≤–æ–∑–≤—Ä–∞—â–∞–µ—Ç —Å–ø–∏—Å–æ–∫ —Å—Ç—Ä–æ–∫ –≤ —Ñ–∞–π–ª–µ.

–î–∞–≤–∞–π—Ç–µ —Ä–∞–∑–±–µ—Ä–µ–º, –∫–∞–∫ –∫–∞–∂–¥–∞—è –∏–∑ —ç—Ç–∏—Ö —Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∞–µ—Ç. –ú–µ—Ç–æ–¥ read () –º–æ–∂–µ—Ç –≤–æ–∑–≤—Ä–∞—â–∞—Ç—å –≤—Å–µ —Å–æ–¥–µ—Ä–∂–∏–º–æ–µ —Ñ–∞–π–ª–∞ –≤ –≤–∏–¥–µ —Å—Ç—Ä–æ–∫–∏.

–¢–µ–∫—Å—Ç–æ–≤—ã–π —Ñ–∞–π–ª —á—Ç–µ–Ω–∏—è Python

–í–æ—Ç –ø—Ä–∏–º–µ—Ä read () —Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∞–µ—Ç —Å —Ç–µ–∫—Å—Ç–æ–≤—ã–º —Ñ–∞–π–ª–æ–º, —Å–æ–¥–µ—Ä–∂–∞—â–∏–º —Å–ø–∏—Å–æ–∫ –∏–º–µ–Ω:

–ù–∞—à–∞ –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∞ –≤–æ–∑–≤—Ä–∞—â–∞–µ—Ç —Å–ª–µ–¥—É—é—â–µ–µ:

–ú–µ—Ç–æ–¥ read () –≤–µ—Ä–Ω—É–ª –≤—Å–µ —Å–æ–¥–µ—Ä–∂–∏–º–æ–µ –Ω–∞—à–µ–≥–æ —Ñ–∞–π–ª–∞ names, –≤–∫–ª—é—á–∞—è —Å–∏–º–≤–æ–ª—ã –Ω–æ–≤–æ–π —Å—Ç—Ä–æ–∫–∏ –≤ –∫–æ–Ω—Ü–µ –Ω–∞—à–µ–π —Å—Ç—Ä–æ–∫–∏.

–§—É–Ω–∫—Ü–∏—è readline () –≤–æ–∑–≤—Ä–∞—â–∞–µ—Ç —Å–ª–µ–¥—É—é—â—É—é —Å—Ç—Ä–æ–∫—É —Ñ–∞–π–ª–∞. readline () –≤–æ–∑–≤—Ä–∞—â–∞–µ—Ç —Ç–µ–∫—Å—Ç –∏ —Å–∏–º–≤–æ–ª –Ω–æ–≤–æ–π —Å—Ç—Ä–æ–∫–∏ –≤ –∫–æ–Ω—Ü–µ —Ñ–∞–π–ª–∞. –°–ª–µ–¥—É—é—â–∏–π –∫–æ–¥ –±—É–¥–µ—Ç —á–∏—Ç–∞—Ç—å –ø–µ—Ä–≤—É—é —Å—Ç—Ä–æ–∫—É –≤ –Ω–∞—à–µ–º —Ñ–∞–π–ª–µ:

–ù–∞—à –∫–æ–¥ –≤–æ–∑–≤—Ä–∞—â–∞–µ—Ç:

–ï—Å–ª–∏ –±—ã –º—ã —Ö–æ—Ç–µ–ª–∏ –ø—Ä–æ—á–∏—Ç–∞—Ç—å –ø–µ—Ä–≤—É—é –∏ –≤—Ç–æ—Ä—É—é —Å—Ç—Ä–æ–∫–∏ –Ω–∞—à–µ–≥–æ —Å—É—â–µ—Å—Ç–≤—É—é—â–µ–≥–æ —Ñ–∞–π–ª–∞, –Ω–∞–º –Ω—É–∂–Ω–æ –±—ã–ª–æ –±—ã —Å–Ω–æ–≤–∞ –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑–æ–≤–∞—Ç—å —Ñ—É–Ω–∫—Ü–∏—é readline (): < / p>

–ù–∞—à –∫–æ–¥ –≤–æ–∑–≤—Ä–∞—â–∞–µ—Ç —Å–ª–µ–¥—É—é—â–∏–π —Ä–µ–∑—É–ª—å—Ç–∞—Ç:

–ü–æ—Å—Ç—Ä–æ—á–Ω–æ–µ —á—Ç–µ–Ω–∏–µ —Ñ–∞–π–ª–∞ Python

–§—É–Ω–∫—Ü–∏—è readline () –º–æ–∂–µ—Ç –±—ã—Ç—å –ø–æ–ª–µ–∑–Ω–∞, –µ—Å–ª–∏ –≤—ã —Ö–æ—Ç–∏—Ç–µ —á–∏—Ç–∞—Ç—å —Ñ–∞–π–ª –ø–æ—Å—Ç—Ä–æ—á–Ω–æ. –≠—Ç–∞ —Ñ—É–Ω–∫—Ü–∏—è –æ–±—ã—á–Ω–æ –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑—É–µ—Ç—Å—è –≤ —Ü–∏–∫–ª–µ for –¥–ª—è —á—Ç–µ–Ω–∏—è –Ω–µ—Å–∫–æ–ª—å–∫–∏—Ö —Å—Ç—Ä–æ–∫ –≤ —Ñ–∞–π–ª–µ, –Ω–∞–ø—Ä–∏–º–µ—Ä:

–ù–∞—à –∫–æ–¥ –≤–æ–∑–≤—Ä–∞—â–∞–µ—Ç —Å–ª–µ–¥—É—é—â–µ–µ:

–ù–∞–∫–æ–Ω–µ—Ü, –º–µ—Ç–æ–¥ readlines () –≤–æ–∑–≤—Ä–∞—â–∞–µ—Ç —Å–ø–∏—Å–æ–∫ —Å—Ç—Ä–æ–∫ –≤ —Ñ–∞–π–ª–µ. –≠—Ç–∞ —Ñ—É–Ω–∫—Ü–∏—è –≤–æ–∑–≤—Ä–∞—â–∞–µ—Ç –º–∞—Å—Å–∏–≤, –∏ –∫–∞–∂–¥—ã–π —ç–ª–µ–º–µ–Ω—Ç –ø—Ä–µ–¥—Å—Ç–∞–≤–ª—è–µ—Ç –æ–¥–Ω—É —Å—Ç—Ä–æ–∫—É –≤ —Ñ–∞–π–ª–µ:

–ü—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∞ –≤–æ–∑–≤—Ä–∞—â–∞–µ—Ç —Å–ª–µ–¥—É—é—â–µ–µ:

–ü—Ä–æ—á–∏—Ç–∞–≤ —Ñ–∞–π–ª, –≤—ã –º–æ–∂–µ—Ç–µ " –Ω–µ –ø–µ—Ä–µ—á–∏—Ç—ã–≤–∞—Ç—å –µ–≥–æ. –ò—Ç–∞–∫, –∫–æ–≥–¥–∞ –≤—ã –ø—Ä–æ—á–∏—Ç–∞–ª–∏ —Ñ–∞–π–ª —Å –ø–æ–º–æ—â—å—é readlines (), –ø–æ–ø—ã—Ç–∫–∞ –ø–µ—Ä–µ—á–∏—Ç–∞—Ç—å —Ñ–∞–π–ª —Å –ø–æ–º–æ—â—å—é –ª—é–±–æ–π –æ–ø–µ—Ä–∞—Ü–∏–∏ —á—Ç–µ–Ω–∏—è —Ñ–∞–π–ª–∞ –≤–µ—Ä–Ω–µ—Ç –ø—É—Å—Ç—É—é —Å—Ç—Ä–æ–∫—É. –ï—Å–ª–∏ –≤—ã —Ö–æ—Ç–∏—Ç–µ –ø—Ä–æ—á–∏—Ç–∞—Ç—å —Ñ–∞–π–ª –Ω–µ—Å–∫–æ–ª—å–∫–æ —Ä–∞–∑, –≤–∞–º –Ω—É–∂–Ω–æ –±—É–¥–µ—Ç —Å–Ω–æ–≤–∞ –æ—Ç–∫—Ä—ã—Ç—å —Ñ–∞–π–ª –∏ –ø—Ä–æ—á–∏—Ç–∞—Ç—å –µ–≥–æ.

–ó–∞–∫–ª—é—á–µ–Ω–∏–µ

–í—ã –º–æ–∂–µ—Ç–µ –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑–æ–≤–∞—Ç—å read (), readline () –∏ readlines () —Ñ—É–Ω–∫—Ü–∏–∏ –¥–ª—è —á—Ç–µ–Ω–∏—è –æ–ø—Ä–µ–¥–µ–ª–µ–Ω–Ω—ã—Ö —á–∞—Å—Ç–µ–π —Ñ–∞–π–ª–∞. –ó–∞—Ç–µ–º –≤—ã –º–∞–Ω–∏–ø—É–ª–∏—Ä—É–µ—Ç–µ –¥–∞–Ω–Ω—ã–º–∏ –≤ –∑–∞–≤–∏—Å–∏–º–æ—Å—Ç–∏ –æ—Ç –≤–∞—à–∏—Ö –ø–æ—Ç—Ä–µ–±–Ω–æ—Å—Ç–µ–π. –°–µ–≥–æ–¥–Ω—è –º—ã —Ä–∞—Å—Å–º–æ—Ç—Ä–µ–ª–∏, –∫–∞–∫ –æ—Ç–∫—Ä—ã—Ç—å —Ñ–∞–π–ª, –ø—Ä–æ—á–∏—Ç–∞—Ç—å –µ–≥–æ —Å –ø–æ–º–æ—â—å—é –æ–ø—Ä–µ–¥–µ–ª–µ–Ω–Ω—ã—Ö –º–µ—Ç–æ–¥–æ–≤ –∏ –∫–∞–∫ –∑–∞–∫—Ä—ã—Ç—å –µ–≥–æ –≤ Python.

–¢–µ–ø–µ—Ä—å –≤—ã –≥–æ—Ç–æ–≤—ã –æ—Ç–∫—Ä—ã–≤–∞—Ç—å –∏ —á–∏—Ç–∞—Ç—å —Ñ–∞–π–ª—ã Python, –∫–∞–∫ —ç–∫—Å–ø–µ—Ä—Ç! –ß—Ç–æ–±—ã —É–∑–Ω–∞—Ç—å –±–æ–ª—å—à–µ –æ Python, –ø—Ä–æ—á–∏—Ç–∞–π—Ç–µ –Ω–∞—à–µ —Ä—É–∫–æ–≤–æ–¥—Å—Ç–≤–æ –ø–æ –ö–∞–∫ –∫–æ–¥–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞—Ç—å –Ω–∞ Python .

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