Утверждения Python: пошаговое руководство

–ö–ª—é—á–µ–≤–æ–µ —Å–ª–æ–≤–æ Python assert –ø—Ä–æ–≤–µ—Ä—è–µ—Ç –≤—ã–ø–æ–ª–Ω–µ–Ω–∏–µ —É—Å–ª–æ–≤–∏—è. –ï—Å–ª–∏ —É—Å–ª–æ–≤–∏–µ –ª–æ–∂–Ω–æ, –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∞ –æ—Å—Ç–∞–Ω–æ–≤–∏—Ç—Å—è —Å –¥–æ–ø–æ–ª–Ω–∏—Ç–µ–ª—å–Ω—ã–º —Å–æ–æ–±—â–µ–Ω–∏–µ–º. –û–ø–µ—Ä–∞—Ç–æ—Ä—ã Assert –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑—É—é—Ç—Å—è –¥–ª—è –æ—Ç–ª–∞–¥–∫–∏ –∫–æ–¥–∞ –∏ –æ–±—Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∫–∏ –æ—à–∏–±–æ–∫. –í—ã –Ω–µ –¥–æ–ª–∂–Ω—ã –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑–æ–≤–∞—Ç—å –æ–ø–µ—Ä–∞—Ç–æ—Ä assert –≤ –ø—Ä–æ–∏–∑–≤–æ–¥—Å—Ç–≤–µ–Ω–Ω–æ–π —Å—Ä–µ–¥–µ.

–û—Ç–ª–∞–¥–∫–∞ —è–≤–ª—è–µ—Ç—Å—è –≤–∞–∂–Ω–æ–π —á–∞—Å—Ç—å—é –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–∏—è –Ω–∞ –ª—é–±–æ–º —è–∑—ã–∫–µ. –ü—Ä–∏ –æ—Ç–ª–∞–¥–∫–µ –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º –Ω–∞ Python –º–æ–≥—É—Ç –≤–æ–∑–Ω–∏–∫–Ω—É—Ç—å —Å–∏—Ç—É–∞—Ü–∏–∏, –∫–æ–≥–¥–∞ –≤—ã –∑–∞—Ö–æ—Ç–∏—Ç–µ –ø—Ä–æ–≤–µ—Ä–∏—Ç—å –æ–ø—Ä–µ–¥–µ–ª–µ–Ω–Ω–æ–µ —É—Å–ª–æ–≤–∏–µ. –ï—Å–ª–∏ —ç—Ç–æ —É—Å–ª–æ–≤–∏–µ –Ω–µ –≤—ã–ø–æ–ª–Ω—è–µ—Ç—Å—è, –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∞ –¥–æ–ª–∂–Ω–∞ –≤–µ—Ä–Ω—É—Ç—å –æ—à–∏–±–∫—É. –¢–∞–∫–∏–º –æ–±—Ä–∞–∑–æ–º, –≤—ã –±—É–¥–µ—Ç–µ –∑–Ω–∞—Ç—å, —á—Ç–æ –Ω—É–∂–Ω–æ –∏—Å–ø—Ä–∞–≤–∏—Ç—å –≤ —Å–≤–æ–µ–º –∫–æ–¥–µ.

–ò–º–µ–Ω–Ω–æ –∑–¥–µ—Å—å –ø–æ—è–≤–ª—è–µ—Ç—Å—è –∫–ª—é—á–µ–≤–æ–µ —Å–ª–æ–≤–æ Python assert. –û–ø–µ—Ä–∞—Ç–æ—Ä assert –ø–æ–∑–≤–æ–ª—è–µ—Ç –≤–∞–º –ø—Ä–æ–≤–µ—Ä—è—Ç—å –∫–æ–Ω–∫—Ä–µ—Ç–Ω–æ–µ —É—Å–ª–æ–≤–∏–µ –≤ Python. –û–Ω –æ–±—ã—á–Ω–æ –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑—É–µ—Ç—Å—è –≤–æ –≤—Ä–µ–º—è –æ—Ç–ª–∞–¥–∫–∏ Python –¥–ª—è –æ–±—Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∫–∏ –æ—à–∏–±–æ–∫.

–í —ç—Ç–æ–º —Ä—É–∫–æ–≤–æ–¥—Å—Ç–≤–µ Python —Ä–∞—Å—Å–º–∞—Ç—Ä–∏–≤–∞–µ—Ç—Å—è –≤–∞–∂–Ω–æ—Å—Ç—å —É—Ç–≤–µ—Ä–∂–¥–µ–Ω–∏—è –∏ —Å–ø–æ—Å–æ–±—ã –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑–æ–≤–∞–Ω–∏—è —É—Ç–≤–µ—Ä–∂–¥–µ–Ω–∏–µ —É—Ç–≤–µ—Ä–∂–¥–µ–Ω–∏—è. –ú—ã —Ä–∞—Å—Å–º–æ—Ç—Ä–∏–º –Ω–µ—Å–∫–æ–ª—å–∫–æ –ø—Ä–∏–º–µ—Ä–æ–≤ –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑–æ–≤–∞–Ω–∏—è –≤—ã—Ä–∞–∂–µ–Ω–∏—è assert –≤ –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–µ, —á—Ç–æ–±—ã –ø–æ–º–æ—á—å –≤–∞–º –Ω–∞—á–∞—Ç—å —Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç—É.

–£—Ç–≤–µ—Ä–∂–¥–µ–Ω–∏–µ –≤ Python

–û–ø–µ—Ä–∞—Ç–æ—Ä assert –ø—Ä–æ–≤–µ—Ä—è–µ—Ç —É—Å–ª–æ–≤–∏—è –≤ Python –∏ –∏—Å–ø—Ä–∞–≤–ª—è–µ—Ç –æ—à–∏–±–∫–∏ –µ—â–µ –±—ã—Å—Ç—Ä–µ–µ. –ï—Å–ª–∏ —É—Å–ª–æ–≤–∏–µ, –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä–æ–µ –≤—ã —Ç–µ—Å—Ç–∏—Ä—É–µ—Ç–µ —Å –ø–æ–º–æ—â—å—é –æ–ø–µ—Ä–∞—Ç–æ—Ä–∞ assert, –æ—Ü–µ–Ω–∏–≤–∞–µ—Ç—Å—è –∫–∞–∫ True, –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∞ –ø—Ä–æ–¥–æ–ª–∂–∏—Ç –≤—ã–ø–æ–ª–Ω–µ–Ω–∏–µ. –ï—Å–ª–∏ —É—Ç–≤–µ—Ä–∂–¥–µ–Ω–∏–µ –æ—Ü–µ–Ω–∏–≤–∞–µ—Ç—Å—è –∫–∞–∫ False, –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∞ –≤—ã–∑–æ–≤–µ—Ç AssertionError (+/- –Ω–µ–æ–±—è–∑–∞—Ç–µ–ª—å–Ω–æ–µ —Å–æ–æ–±—â–µ–Ω–∏–µ).

–£—Ç–≤–µ—Ä–∂–¥–µ–Ω–∏—è –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑—É—é—Ç—Å—è –¥–ª—è –∏–¥–µ–Ω—Ç–∏—Ñ–∏–∫–∞—Ü–∏–∏ –∏ —É–¥–∞–ª–µ–Ω–∏—è –æ–ø—Ä–µ–¥–µ–ª–µ–Ω–Ω—ã—Ö —É—Å–ª–æ–≤–∏–π –ø—Ä–∏ –∑–∞–ø—É—Å–∫–µ –∫–æ–¥–∞. –ù–∞–ø—Ä–∏–º–µ—Ä, –ø—Ä–µ–¥–ø–æ–ª–æ–∂–∏–º, —á—Ç–æ –≤—ã –≤—ã–ø–æ–ª–Ω—è–µ—Ç–µ –æ–ø–µ—Ä–∞—Ü–∏—é —Å–æ —Å–ø–∏—Å–∫–æ–º, –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä–∞—è –∏–∑–º–µ–Ω—è–µ—Ç –∑–Ω–∞—á–µ–Ω–∏—è —Å–ø–∏—Å–∫–∞. –í—ã –º–æ–∂–µ—Ç–µ –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑–æ–≤–∞—Ç—å —É—Ç–≤–µ—Ä–∂–¥–µ–Ω–∏–µ, —á—Ç–æ–±—ã –≥–∞—Ä–∞–Ω—Ç–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞—Ç—å –≤—ã–ø–æ–ª–Ω–µ–Ω–∏–µ –æ–ø—Ä–µ–¥–µ–ª–µ–Ω–Ω—ã—Ö —É—Å–ª–æ–≤–∏–π –ø–µ—Ä–µ–¥ –∏–∑–º–µ–Ω–µ–Ω–∏–µ–º —Å–ø–∏—Å–∫–∞. –≠—Ç–æ –ø—Ä–µ–¥–æ—Ç–≤—Ä–∞—Ç–∏—Ç –≤–Ω–µ—Å–µ–Ω–∏–µ –∏–∑–º–µ–Ω–µ–Ω–∏–π –≤ –≤–∞—à —Å–ø–∏—Å–æ–∫, –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä—ã–µ –º–æ–≥—É—Ç –±—ã—Ç—å –Ω–µ–ø—Ä–∞–≤–∏–ª—å–Ω—ã–º–∏.

–£—Ç–≤–µ—Ä–∂–¥–µ–Ω–∏—è –Ω–µ –∑–∞–º–µ–Ω—è—é—Ç –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–Ω—ã–µ –æ—à–∏–±–∫–∏, —Ç–∞–∫–∏–µ –∫–∞–∫ SyntaxError –∏–ª–∏ NameError . –ï—Å–ª–∏ –≤—ã " —Ö–æ—Ç–∏—Ç–µ –ø—Ä–æ—Ç–µ—Å—Ç–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞—Ç—å –±–ª–æ–∫ –∫–æ–¥–∞, –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑—É—è " –ø–æ–ø—Ä–æ–±—É–π—Ç–µ & hellip; –∫—Ä–æ–º–µ " –±—ã–ª–æ –±—ã –±–æ–ª–µ–µ —É–º–µ—Å—Ç–Ω–æ. –ù–æ –µ—Å–ª–∏ –≤—ã —Ö–æ—Ç–∏—Ç–µ –ø—Ä–æ–≤–µ—Ä–∏—Ç—å –Ω–∞–ª–∏—á–∏–µ –æ–ø—Ä–µ–¥–µ–ª–µ–Ω–Ω–æ–≥–æ —É—Å–ª–æ–≤–∏—è –≤ —Å–≤–æ–µ–º –∫–æ–¥–µ, –º–æ–∂–µ—Ç –æ–∫–∞–∑–∞—Ç—å—Å—è –±–æ–ª–µ–µ –ø–æ–ª–µ–∑–Ω—ã–º –æ–ø–µ—Ä–∞—Ç–æ—Ä assert.

–í—ã –¥–æ–ª–∂–Ω—ã –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑–æ–≤–∞—Ç—å —É—Ç–≤–µ—Ä–∂–¥–µ–Ω–∏—è —ç–∫–æ–Ω–æ–º–Ω–æ –∏ —Ç–æ–ª—å–∫–æ –≤–æ –≤—Ä–µ–º—è –æ—Ç–ª–∞–¥–∫–∏. –≠—Ç–æ –≤–∞–∂–Ω–æ –ø–æ –¥–≤—É–º –ø—Ä–∏—á–∏–Ω–∞–º. & nbsp;

81% —É—á–∞—Å—Ç–Ω–∏–∫–æ–≤ –∑–∞—è–≤–∏–ª–∏, —á—Ç–æ –æ–Ω–∏ –±–æ–ª–µ–µ —É–≤–µ—Ä–µ–Ω—ã –≤ —Å–≤–æ–∏—Ö —Ç–µ—Ö–Ω–æ–ª–æ–≥–∏—è—Ö. –ü–µ—Ä—Å–ø–µ–∫—Ç–∏–≤—ã —Ç—Ä—É–¥–æ—É—Å—Ç—Ä–æ–π—Å—Ç–≤–∞ –ø–æ—Å–ª–µ –ø–æ—Å–µ—â–µ–Ω–∏—è —É—á–µ–±–Ω–æ–≥–æ –ª–∞–≥–µ—Ä—è. –ü–æ–ø–∞–¥–∏—Ç–µ –Ω–∞ –Ω–µ–≥–æ —Å–µ–≥–æ–¥–Ω—è.

–°—Ä–µ–¥–Ω–∏–π –≤—ã–ø—É—Å–∫–Ω–∏–∫ —É—á–µ–±–Ω–æ–≥–æ –ª–∞–≥–µ—Ä—è –ø–æ—Ç—Ä–∞—Ç–∏–ª –º–µ–Ω–µ–µ —à–µ—Å—Ç–∏ –º–µ—Å—è—Ü–µ–≤ –Ω–∞ —Å–º–µ–Ω—É –∫–∞—Ä—å–µ—Ä—ã, –æ—Ç –Ω–∞—á–∞–ª–∞ —É—á–µ–±–Ω–æ–≥–æ –ª–∞–≥–µ—Ä—è –¥–æ –ø–æ–∏—Å–∫–∞ —Å–≤–æ–µ–π –ø–µ—Ä–≤–æ–π —Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç—ã.

–í–æ-–ø–µ—Ä–≤—ã—Ö, —É—Ç–≤–µ—Ä–∂–¥–µ–Ω–∏—è –ø–æ–º–æ–≥–∞—é—Ç —Ä–∞–∑—Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç—á–∏–∫–∞–º –Ω–∞–π—Ç–∏ –ø—Ä–∏—á–∏–Ω—É –æ—à–∏–±–∫–∏ –¥–æ —Ç–æ–≥–æ, –∫–∞–∫ –æ–Ω–∞ –ø–æ–≤–ª–∏—è–µ—Ç –Ω–∞ –¥—Ä—É–≥–æ–π –∫–æ–¥. –£—Ç–≤–µ—Ä–∂–¥–µ–Ω–∏—è –Ω–µ –≤—ã–∑—ã–≤–∞—é—Ç –∫–∞–∫–∏—Ö-–ª–∏–±–æ –æ—à–∏–±–æ–∫ –≤ –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–µ. –†–∞–∑—Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç—á–∏–∫ –¥–æ–ª–∂–µ–Ω –æ–ø—Ä–µ–¥–µ–ª–∏—Ç—å —É—Ç–≤–µ—Ä–∂–¥–µ–Ω–∏–µ –≤ —Å–≤–æ–µ–º –∫–æ–¥–µ.

–í–æ-–≤—Ç–æ—Ä—ã—Ö, –ò–Ω—Ç–µ—Ä–ø—Ä–µ—Ç–∞—Ç–æ—Ä Python –ø–æ–ª—å–∑–æ–≤–∞—Ç–µ–ª–∏ –º–æ–≥—É—Ç –æ—Ç–∫–ª—é—á–∞—Ç—å —É—Ç–≤–µ—Ä–∂–¥–µ–Ω–∏—è —É—Ç–≤–µ—Ä–∂–¥–µ–Ω–∏–π . –ü–æ—ç—Ç–æ–º—É –º–æ–∂–µ—Ç –≤–æ–∑–Ω–∏–∫–Ω—É—Ç—å —Ä—è–¥ –ø—Ä–æ–±–ª–µ–º, –µ—Å–ª–∏ –≤—ã —Ç–∞–∫–∂–µ –±—É–¥–µ—Ç–µ –ø–æ–ª–∞–≥–∞—Ç—å—Å—è –Ω–∞ —É—Ç–≤–µ—Ä–∂–¥–µ–Ω–∏—è. –≤ –∑–Ω–∞—á–∏—Ç–µ–ª—å–Ω–æ–π —Å—Ç–µ–ø–µ–Ω–∏ –¥–ª—è –æ–±—Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∫–∏ –æ—à–∏–±–æ–∫, –∏ –ø–æ–ª—å–∑–æ–≤–∞—Ç–µ–ª—å –æ—Ç–∫–ª—é—á–∞–µ—Ç ssertions.

–í—ã –Ω–∏–∫–æ–≥–¥–∞ –Ω–µ –¥–æ–ª–∂–Ω—ã –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑–æ–≤–∞—Ç—å —É—Ç–≤–µ—Ä–∂–¥–µ–Ω–∏—è –¥–ª—è –ø—Ä–æ–≤–µ—Ä–∫–∏ –¥–∞–Ω–Ω—ã—Ö –≤–Ω–µ —Å—Ä–µ–¥—ã —Ä–∞–∑—Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∫–∏. –≠—Ç–æ —Å–≤—è–∑–∞–Ω–æ —Å —Ç–µ–º, —á—Ç–æ –æ—Ç–∫–ª—é—á–µ–Ω–∏–µ —É—Ç–≤–µ—Ä–∂–¥–µ–Ω–∏–π –º–æ–∂–µ—Ç —Å—É—â–µ—Å—Ç–≤–µ–Ω–Ω–æ –ø–æ–≤–ª–∏—è—Ç—å –Ω–∞ —Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç—É –≤–∞—à–µ–π –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º—ã. –ï—Å–ª–∏ –≤—ã –ø–æ–ª–∞–≥–∞–µ—Ç–µ—Å—å –Ω–∞ —É—Ç–≤–µ—Ä–∂–¥–µ–Ω–∏—è, –∞ –æ–Ω–∏ –æ—Ç–∫–ª—é—á–µ–Ω—ã, –≤–∞—à–∞ –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∞ –º–æ–∂–µ—Ç –≤–æ–∑–≤—Ä–∞—â–∞—Ç—å –Ω–æ–≤—ã–µ –æ—à–∏–±–∫–∏, –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä—ã—Ö –≤—ã –Ω–µ –æ–∂–∏–¥–∞–µ—Ç–µ.

–£—Ç–≤–µ—Ä–∂–¥–µ–Ω–∏—è Python

–û–ø–µ—Ä–∞—Ç–æ—Ä assert –ø—Ä–æ–≤–µ—Ä—è–µ—Ç, —è–≤–ª—è–µ—Ç—Å—è –ª–∏ —É—Å–ª–æ–≤–∏–µ –∏—Å—Ç–∏–Ω–Ω—ã–º. –ï—Å–ª–∏ —É—Å–ª–æ–≤–∏–µ –æ—Ü–µ–Ω–∏–≤–∞–µ—Ç—Å—è –∫–∞–∫ True, –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∞ –ø—Ä–æ–¥–æ–ª–∂–∏—Ç —Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç—É. –ï—Å–ª–∏ —É—Å–ª–æ–≤–∏–µ –ª–æ–∂–Ω–æ, –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∞ –≤–µ—Ä–Ω–µ—Ç AssertionError. –ù–∞ —ç—Ç–æ–º —ç—Ç–∞–ø–µ –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∞ –ø–µ—Ä–µ—Å—Ç–∞–Ω–µ—Ç –≤—ã–ø–æ–ª–Ω—è—Ç—å—Å—è.

–í Python assert —è–≤–ª—è–µ—Ç—Å—è –∫–ª—é—á–µ–≤—ã–º —Å–ª–æ–≤–æ–º. –≠—Ç–æ –æ–∑–Ω–∞—á–∞–µ—Ç, —á—Ç–æ –≤—ã —É–≤–∏–¥–∏—Ç–µ, —á—Ç–æ –∫–ª—é—á–µ–≤–æ–µ —Å–ª–æ–≤–æ assert –≤—ã–¥–µ–ª—è–µ—Ç—Å—è –æ—Å–æ–±—ã–º —Ü–≤–µ—Ç–æ–º, –∫–æ–≥–¥–∞ –≤—ã –µ–≥–æ –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑—É–µ—Ç–µ. –û–Ω –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑—É–µ—Ç —Å–ª–µ–¥—É—é—â–∏–π —Å–∏–Ω—Ç–∞–∫—Å–∏—Å:

–ó–¥–µ—Å—å –¥–≤–∞ –ø–∞—Ä–∞–º–µ—Ç—Ä–∞, –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä—ã–µ assert –º–æ–∂–µ—Ç –ø—Ä–∏–Ω–∏–º–∞—Ç—å:

  • condition : —É—Å–ª–æ–≤–∏–µ, –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä–æ–µ –≤—ã —Ö–æ—Ç–∏—Ç–µ –ø—Ä–æ–≤–µ—Ä–∏—Ç—å (–æ–±—è–∑–∞—Ç–µ–ª—å–Ω–æ)
  • message : —Å–æ–æ–±—â–µ–Ω–∏–µ, –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä–æ–µ –≤—ã —Ö–æ—Ç–∏—Ç–µ –æ—Ç–æ–±—Ä–∞–∑–∏—Ç—å –ø—Ä–∏ –≤—ã–ø–æ–ª–Ω–µ–Ω–∏–∏ –æ–ø–µ—Ä–∞—Ç–æ—Ä–∞ assert (–Ω–µ–æ–±—è–∑–∞—Ç–µ–ª—å–Ω–æ).

–ü—Ä–∏–º–µ—Ä Assert Python

–î–∞–≤–∞–π—Ç–µ –≤–æ—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑—É–µ–º—Å—è –ø—Ä–∏–º–µ—Ä–æ–º, —á—Ç–æ–±—ã –ø—Ä–æ–∏–ª–ª—é—Å—Ç—Ä–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞—Ç—å –∫–ª—é—á–µ–≤–æ–µ —Å–ª–æ–≤–æ assert –≤ –¥–µ–π—Å—Ç–≤–∏–∏. –î–æ–ø—É—Å—Ç–∏–º, –º—ã —Å–æ–∑–¥–∞–µ–º –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º—É, –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä–∞—è –≤—ã—á–∏—Å–ª—è–µ—Ç, —Å–¥–∞–ª –ª–∏ —Å—Ç—É–¥–µ–Ω—Ç –æ–ø—Ä–µ–¥–µ–ª–µ–Ω–Ω—ã–π —Ç–µ—Å—Ç –∏–ª–∏ –Ω–µ—Ç. –û—Ü–µ–Ω–∫–∞ 52 –∏–ª–∏ –≤—ã—à–µ —Å—á–∏—Ç–∞–µ—Ç—Å—è —É—Å–ø–µ—à–Ω–æ–π, –∞ –æ—Ü–µ–Ω–∫–∞ –Ω–∏–∂–µ 52 - –Ω–µ—É–¥–∞—á–µ–π.

–ú—ã —Ö–æ—Ç–∏–º —É–±–µ–¥–∏—Ç—å—Å—è, —á—Ç–æ –º—ã –≤—Å—Ç–∞–≤–∏–ª–∏ –¥–∞–Ω–Ω—ã–µ –ø–æ–ª—å–∑–æ–≤–∞—Ç–µ–ª—è –≤ –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º—É, –ø—Ä–µ–∂–¥–µ —á–µ–º –≤—ã–ø–æ–ª–Ω—è—Ç—å –∫–∞–∫–∏–µ-–ª–∏–±–æ –≤—ã—á–∏—Å–ª–µ–Ω–∏—è. –í –ø—Ä–æ—Ç–∏–≤–Ω–æ–º —Å–ª—É—á–∞–µ –Ω–∞—à–∞ –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∞ –º–æ–∂–µ—Ç —Å–∫–∞–∑–∞—Ç—å, —á—Ç–æ –ø–æ–ª—å–∑–æ–≤–∞—Ç–µ–ª—å –Ω–µ –ø—Ä–æ—à–µ–ª —Ç–µ—Å—Ç, –¥–∞–∂–µ –µ—Å–ª–∏ –¥–∞–Ω–Ω—ã–µ –æ—Ç—Å—É—Ç—Å—Ç–≤—É—é—Ç.

–ú—ã –º–æ–≥–ª–∏ –±—ã —Å–æ–∑–¥–∞—Ç—å –ø—Ä–æ–≤–µ—Ä–∫—É –Ω–∞ –Ω–∞–ª–∏—á–∏–µ –æ—à–∏–±–∫–∏, –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑—É—è —Å–ª–µ–¥—É—é—â–∏–π –∫–æ–¥:

–ö–æ–≥–¥–∞ –º—ã –∑–∞–ø—É—Å–∫–∞–µ–º –Ω–∞—à –∫–æ–¥, –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∞ –≤–æ–∑–≤—Ä–∞—â–∞–µ—Ç —Å–ª–µ–¥—É—é—â–∏–π —Ä–µ–∑—É–ª—å—Ç–∞—Ç:

–í –ø–µ—Ä–≤–æ–π —Å—Ç—Ä–æ–∫–µ –Ω–∞—à–µ–≥–æ –∫–æ–¥–∞ –º—ã –æ–±—ä—è–≤–ª—è–µ–º —Å–ø–∏—Å–æ–∫ –æ—Ü–µ–Ω–æ–∫ —É—á–∞—â–∏—Ö—Å—è.

–ú—ã —Å–æ–∑–¥–∞–µ–º –¥–ª—è —Ü–∏–∫–ª , –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä—ã–π –ø–µ—Ä–µ–±–∏—Ä–∞–µ—Ç —Å–ø–∏—Å–æ–∫ –æ—Ü–µ–Ω–æ–∫ —É—á–∞—â–∏—Ö—Å—è. –≠—Ç–æ—Ç —Ü–∏–∫–ª for —Å–æ–¥–µ—Ä–∂–∏—Ç –æ–ø–µ—Ä–∞—Ç–æ—Ä assert, –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä—ã–π –≤—ã–∑—ã–≤–∞–µ—Ç –æ—à–∏–±–∫—É, –µ—Å–ª–∏ –≤—ã—Ä–∞–∂–µ–Ω–∏–µ student_grades [g]! = 0 –æ—Ü–µ–Ω–∏–≤–∞–µ—Ç—Å—è –∫–∞–∫ False. –î—Ä—É–≥–∏–º–∏ —Å–ª–æ–≤–∞–º–∏, –µ—Å–ª–∏ –æ—Ü–µ–Ω–∫–∞ —É—á–µ–Ω–∏–∫–∞ —Ä–∞–≤–Ω–∞ 0, –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∞ –≤–µ—Ä–Ω–µ—Ç –æ—à–∏–±–∫—É AssertionError.

–ú—ã –æ–ø—Ä–µ–¥–µ–ª—è–µ–º –æ–ø–µ—Ä–∞—Ç–æ—Ä if. –≠—Ç–æ—Ç –æ–ø–µ—Ä–∞—Ç–æ—Ä –≤—ã–≤–æ–¥–∏—Ç –Ω–∞ –∫–æ–Ω—Å–æ–ª—å —Å–æ–æ–±—â–µ–Ω–∏–µ, –µ—Å–ª–∏ —É—á–∞—â–∏–π—Å—è –Ω–∞–±—Ä–∞–ª 52 –∏–ª–∏ –±–æ–ª—å—à–µ –±–∞–ª–ª–æ–≤ –ø–æ —Ç–µ—Å—Ç—É (–≠—Ç–æ—Ç —É—á–∞—â–∏–π—Å—è —Å–¥–∞–ª.). –ú—ã –æ—Ç–æ–±—Ä–∞–∂–∞–µ–º –¥—Ä—É–≥–æ–µ —Å–æ–æ–±—â–µ–Ω–∏–µ, –µ—Å–ª–∏ —É—á–∞—â–∏–π—Å—è –Ω–∞–±—Ä–∞–ª –º–µ–Ω–µ–µ 52 –±–∞–ª–ª–æ–≤ (–≠—Ç–æ—Ç —É—á–∞—â–∏–π—Å—è –Ω–µ –ø—Ä–æ—à–µ–ª.). –ù–∞–∫–æ–Ω–µ—Ü, –Ω–∞—à–∞ –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∞ –≤—ã–≤–æ–¥–∏—Ç –Ω–∞ –∫–æ–Ω—Å–æ–ª—å –ü—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∞ –∑–∞–≤–µ—Ä—à–µ–Ω–∞.

–ö–∞–∫ –≤–∏–¥–∏—Ç–µ, –Ω–∞—à–∞ –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∞ –Ω–∞—á–∞–ª–∞ –ø—Ä–æ—Å–º–∞—Ç—Ä–∏–≤–∞—Ç—å —Å–ø–∏—Å–æ–∫ –æ—Ü–µ–Ω–æ–∫ —É—á–∞—â–∏—Ö—Å—è –∏ –≤—ã—á–∏—Å–ª—è—Ç—å, –ø—Ä–æ—à–ª–∏ –ª–∏ –æ–Ω–∏ —Ç–µ—Å—Ç –∏–ª–∏ –Ω–µ—Ç. . –û–¥–Ω–∞–∫–æ, –∫–æ–≥–¥–∞ –Ω–∞—à–∞ –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∞ –¥–æ—Å—Ç–∏–≥–ª–∞ —á–µ—Ç–≤–µ—Ä—Ç–æ–≥–æ –∑–Ω–∞—á–µ–Ω–∏—è –≤ –Ω–∞—à–µ–º —Å–ø–∏—Å–∫–µ, –æ–Ω–∞ –≤—ã–∑–≤–∞–ª–∞ –æ—à–∏–±–∫—É AssertionError. –≠—Ç–æ —Å–≤—è–∑–∞–Ω–æ —Å —Ç–µ–º, —á—Ç–æ –Ω–∞—à–∞ –æ—Ü–µ–Ω–∫–∞ —É—á–∞—â–µ–≥–æ—Å—è –±—ã–ª–∞ —Ä–∞–≤–Ω–∞ 0.

–ú—ã —Ö–æ—Ç–µ–ª–∏ —É–±–µ–¥–∏—Ç—å—Å—è, —á—Ç–æ —á–∏—Å–ª–æ–≤–∞—è –æ—Ü–µ–Ω–∫–∞ –∫–∞–∂–¥–æ–≥–æ —É—á–∞—â–µ–≥–æ—Å—è –ø—Ä–∏—Å—É—Ç—Å—Ç–≤–æ–≤–∞–ª–∞ –ø–µ—Ä–µ–¥ –ø–æ–¥—Å—á–µ—Ç–æ–º –∏—Ö –æ—Ü–µ–Ω–∫–∏. –ï—Å–ª–∏ –æ—Ü–µ–Ω–∫–∞ —É—á–∞—â–µ–≥–æ—Å—è –Ω–µ —É–∫–∞–∑–∞–Ω–∞, –º—ã –¥–æ–ª–∂–Ω—ã –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑–æ–≤–∞—Ç—å 0 –≤–º–µ—Å—Ç–æ –µ–≥–æ —á–∏—Å–ª–æ–≤–æ–π –æ—Ü–µ–Ω–∫–∏.

–≠—Ç–æ –ø–æ–∑–≤–æ–ª–∏—Ç –Ω–∞–º —É–±–µ–¥–∏—Ç—å—Å—è, —á—Ç–æ –º—ã –Ω–µ –≤—ã—Å—Ç–∞–≤–ª—è–µ–º —É—á–∞—â–µ–º—É—Å—è –Ω–µ–ø—Ä–∞–≤–∏–ª—å–Ω—É—é –æ—Ü–µ–Ω–∫—É. –í–µ—Ä–æ—è—Ç–Ω–æ, —ç—Ç–æ —Å–≤—è–∑–∞–Ω–æ —Å —Ç–µ–º, —á—Ç–æ —ç—Ç–∞ –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∞ –≤—Å–µ –µ—â–µ –Ω–∞—Ö–æ–¥–∏—Ç—Å—è –≤ —Å—Ç–∞–¥–∏–∏ —Ç–µ—Å—Ç–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–∏—è. –ú—ã –≤—Å–µ –µ—â–µ –≤–Ω–æ—Å–∏–º –∏–∑–º–µ–Ω–µ–Ω–∏—è –≤ –Ω–∞—à—É –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º—É.

–ï—Å–ª–∏ –±—ã —ç—Ç–æ –±—ã–ª–∞ –ø–æ—Å–ª–µ–¥–Ω—è—è –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∞, –º—ã –±—ã —Ö–æ—Ç–µ–ª–∏ –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑–æ–≤–∞—Ç—å –±–æ–ª–µ–µ –Ω–∞–¥–µ–∂–Ω—ã–π –º–µ—Ç–æ–¥ –æ–±—Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∫–∏ –æ—à–∏–±–æ–∫, —á–µ–º assert. –ù–æ –¥–ª—è —Ü–µ–ª–µ–π –æ—Ç–ª–∞–¥–∫–∏ –¥–æ–ø—É—Å—Ç–∏–º–æ —É—Ç–≤–µ—Ä–∂–¥–µ–Ω–∏–µ assert.

–î–æ–±–∞–≤–ª–µ–Ω–∏–µ –Ω–∞—Å—Ç—Ä–∞–∏–≤–∞–µ–º–æ–≥–æ —Å–æ–æ–±—â–µ–Ω–∏—è –æ–± –æ—à–∏–±–∫–µ

–¢–µ–ø–µ—Ä—å –¥–æ–ø—É—Å—Ç–∏–º, —á—Ç–æ –º—ã —Ö–æ—Ç–∏–º –≤–∫–ª—é—á–∏—Ç—å –Ω–∞—Å—Ç—Ä–∞–∏–≤–∞–µ–º–æ–µ —Å–æ–æ–±—â–µ–Ω–∏–µ –æ–± –æ—à–∏–±–∫–µ –≤ –Ω–∞—à—É –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º—É. –ï—Å–ª–∏ –æ—Ü–µ–Ω–∫–∞ –ø–æ–ª—å–∑–æ–≤–∞—Ç–µ–ª—è —Ä–∞–≤–Ω–∞ 52 , –º—ã —Ö–æ—Ç–∏–º, —á—Ç–æ–±—ã –≤–æ–∑–Ω–∏–∫–ª–∞ –æ—à–∏–±–∫–∞. –í —ç—Ç–æ–π –æ—à–∏–±–∫–µ –¥–æ–ª–∂–Ω–æ –±—ã—Ç—å —É–∫–∞–∑–∞–Ω–æ –û—Ü–µ–Ω–∫–∞ —É—á–∞—â–µ–≥–æ—Å—è 0. –≠—Ç–∞ –æ—à–∏–±–∫–∞ –ø—Ä–æ—è—Å–Ω–∏—Ç –Ω–∞–º, —Ä–∞–∑—Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç—á–∏–∫–∞–º, —Å –∫–∞–∫–æ–π –ø—Ä–æ–±–ª–µ–º–æ–π —Å—Ç–æ–ª–∫–Ω—É–ª–∞—Å—å –Ω–∞—à–∞ –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∞.

"–ö–∞—Ä—å–µ—Ä–∞ –ö–∞—Ä–º–∞ –≤–æ—à–ª–∞ –≤ –º–æ—é –∂–∏–∑–Ω—å, –∫–æ–≥–¥–∞ —è –±–æ–ª—å—à–µ –≤—Å–µ–≥–æ –≤ –Ω–µ–π –Ω—É–∂–¥–∞–ª–∞—Å—å, –∏ –±—ã—Å—Ç—Ä–æ –ø–æ–º–æ–≥–ª–∞ –º–Ω–µ —Å—ã–≥—Ä–∞—Ç—å –≤ –±—É—Ç–∫–µ–º–ø–µ. –ß–µ—Ä–µ–∑ –¥–≤–∞ –º–µ—Å—è—Ü–∞ –ø–æ—Å–ª–µ –≤—ã–ø—É—Å–∫–∞ —è –Ω–∞—à–ª–∞ —Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç—É —Å–≤–æ–µ–π –º–µ—á—Ç—ã, –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä–∞—è —Å–æ–æ—Ç–≤–µ—Ç—Å—Ç–≤–æ–≤–∞–ª–∞ –º–æ–∏–º —Ü–µ–Ω–Ω–æ—Å—Ç—è–º –∏ —Ü–µ–ª—è–º –≤ –∂–∏–∑–Ω–∏! "

–í–µ–Ω–µ—Ä–∞, –∏–Ω–∂–µ–Ω–µ—Ä-–ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∏—Å—Ç –≤ Rockbot

< p> –í–æ—Ç –∫–æ–¥, –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä—ã–π –º—ã –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑–æ–≤–∞–ª–∏ –±—ã –¥–ª—è –¥–æ–±–∞–≤–ª–µ–Ω–∏—è —Å–æ–æ–±—â–µ–Ω–∏—è –æ–± –æ—à–∏–±–∫–µ –≤ –Ω–∞—à –ø—Ä–∏–≤–µ–¥–µ–Ω–Ω—ã–π –≤—ã—à–µ –∫–æ–¥:

–¢–µ–ø–µ—Ä—å, –∫–æ–≥–¥–∞ –º—ã –∑–∞–ø—É—Å–∫–∞–µ–º –Ω–∞—à—É –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º—É, –º—ã –ø–æ–ª—É—á–∞–µ–º —Å–ª–µ–¥—É—é—â–∏–π —Ä–µ–∑—É–ª—å—Ç–∞—Ç:

–ü—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∞ –ø–æ-–ø—Ä–µ–∂–Ω–µ–º—É –≤—ã–¥–∞–≤–∞–ª–∞ AssertionError. –ù–∞ —ç—Ç–æ—Ç —Ä–∞–∑ –º—ã –æ—Ç–æ–±—Ä–∞–∂–∞–ª–∏ –¥–æ–ø–æ–ª–Ω–∏—Ç–µ–ª—å–Ω–æ–µ —Å–æ–æ–±—â–µ–Ω–∏–µ –æ–± –æ—à–∏–±–∫–µ, –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä–æ–µ –º—ã –æ–ø—Ä–µ–¥–µ–ª–∏–ª–∏ –≤ –Ω–∞—à–µ–º –∫–æ–¥–µ. –î–æ–ø–æ–ª–Ω–∏—Ç–µ–ª—å–Ω–æ–µ —Å–æ–æ–±—â–µ–Ω–∏–µ –º–æ–∂–µ—Ç –ø–æ–º–æ—á—å —Ä–∞–∑—Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç—á–∏–∫—É –ª—É—á—à–µ –ø–æ–Ω—è—Ç—å –ø—Ä–æ–±–ª–µ–º—ã –≤ –∏—Ö –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–µ, –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä—ã–µ –º–æ–≥—É—Ç —Å–¥–µ–ª–∞—Ç—å –±–æ–ª–µ–µ —ç—Ñ—Ñ–µ–∫—Ç–∏–≤–Ω–∞—è –æ—Ç–ª–∞–¥–∫–∞.

–ó–∞–∫–ª—é—á–µ–Ω–∏–µ

–£—Ç–≤–µ—Ä–∂–¥–µ–Ω–∏—è Python - –ø–æ–ª–µ–∑–Ω—ã–π –∏–Ω—Å—Ç—Ä—É–º–µ–Ω—Ç –æ—Ç–ª–∞–¥–∫–∏, –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä—ã–π –º–æ–∂–µ—Ç –ø–æ–º–æ—á—å –≤–∞–º –Ω–∞–ø–∏—Å–∞—Ç—å –±–æ–ª–µ–µ —É–¥–æ–±–Ω—ã–π –¥–ª—è —Å–æ–ø—Ä–æ–≤–æ–∂–¥–µ–Ω–∏—è –∫–æ–¥. –û–Ω–∏ —É–ø—Ä–æ—â–∞—é—Ç –ø—Ä–æ–≤–µ—Ä–∫—É –æ–ø—Ä–µ–¥–µ–ª–µ–Ω–Ω—ã—Ö —É—Å–ª–æ–≤–∏–π –≤ –≤–∞—à–µ–º –∫–æ–¥–µ.

–ú—ã —Ä–µ–∫–æ–º–µ–Ω–¥—É–µ–º –≤–∞–º —ç–∫–æ–Ω–æ–º–Ω–æ –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑–æ–≤–∞—Ç—å —É—Ç–≤–µ—Ä–∂–¥–µ–Ω–∏—è Python. –ü–æ—Å–∫–æ–ª—å–∫—É –ø–æ–ª—å–∑–æ–≤–∞—Ç–µ–ª–∏ –º–æ–≥—É—Ç –æ—Ç–∫–ª—é—á–∞—Ç—å —É—Ç–≤–µ—Ä–∂–¥–µ–Ω–∏—è, –º—ã —Ä–µ–∫–æ–º–µ–Ω–¥—É–µ–º –Ω–∏–∫–æ–≥–¥–∞ –Ω–µ –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑–æ–≤–∞—Ç—å –∏—Ö –¥–ª—è –≤—ã–ø–æ–ª–Ω–µ–Ω–∏—è —Ç–∞–∫–∏—Ö –∑–∞–¥–∞—á, –∫–∞–∫ –ø—Ä–æ–≤–µ—Ä–∫–∞ –¥–∞–Ω–Ω—ã—Ö. –ï—Å–ª–∏ –≤—ã –ø–æ–ª–∞–≥–∞–µ—Ç–µ—Å—å –Ω–∞ —É—Ç–≤–µ—Ä–∂–¥–µ–Ω–∏—è, –∞ –æ–Ω–∏ –æ—Ç–∫–ª—é—á–µ–Ω—ã, –≤–∞—à–∞ –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∞ –º–æ–∂–µ—Ç —Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∞—Ç—å –Ω–µ–∫–æ—Ä—Ä–µ–∫—Ç–Ω–æ.

–í —ç—Ç–æ–º —Ä—É–∫–æ–≤–æ–¥—Å—Ç–≤–µ –∏—Å—Å–ª–µ–¥—É—é—Ç—Å—è –ø–æ–ª–µ–∑–Ω–æ—Å—Ç—å –∏ –æ–≥—Ä–∞–Ω–∏—á–µ–Ω–∏—è –∫–ª—é—á–µ–≤–æ–≥–æ —Å–ª–æ–≤–∞ assert Python –∏ —Å–ø–æ—Å–æ–±—ã –µ–≥–æ –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑–æ–≤–∞–Ω–∏—è. –ö—Ä–æ–º–µ —Ç–æ–≥–æ, –º—ã –æ–±—Å—É–¥–∏–ª–∏ –ø—Ä–∏–º–µ—Ä –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑–æ–≤–∞–Ω–∏—è –∫–ª—é—á–µ–≤–æ–≥–æ —Å–ª–æ–≤–∞ assert. –ú—ã —Ç–∞–∫–∂–µ —Ä–∞—Å—Å–º–æ—Ç—Ä–µ–ª–∏, –∫–∞–∫ –æ–ø—Ä–µ–¥–µ–ª—è—Ç—å –ø–æ–ª—å–∑–æ–≤–∞—Ç–µ–ª—å—Å–∫–∏–µ —Å–æ–æ–±—â–µ–Ω–∏—è –æ–± –æ—à–∏–±–∫–∞—Ö —Å –ø–æ–º–æ—â—å—é assert.

–ó–Ω–∞–Ω–∏–µ —Ç–æ–≥–æ, –∫–∞–∫ –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑–æ–≤–∞—Ç—å –æ–ø–µ—Ä–∞—Ç–æ—Ä assert, - —ç—Ç–æ —Ö–æ—Ä–æ—à–∏–π –Ω–∞–≤—ã–∫. –ò–∑—É—á–µ–Ω–∏–µ —ç—Ç–æ–≥–æ - –µ—â–µ –æ–¥–∏–Ω —à–∞–≥ –Ω–∞ –ø—É—Ç–∏ –∫ —Ç–æ–º—É, —á—Ç–æ–±—ã —Å—Ç–∞—Ç—å —ç–∫—Å–ø–µ—Ä—Ç–æ–º –ø–æ Python !

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