Введение в языки объектно-ориентированного программирования: руководство

–í —è–∑—ã–∫–∞—Ö –æ–±—ä–µ–∫—Ç–Ω–æ-–æ—Ä–∏–µ–Ω—Ç–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–Ω–æ–≥–æ –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–∏—è –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑—É—é—Ç—Å—è –æ–±—ä–µ–∫—Ç—ã, —Å–æ–¥–µ—Ä–∂–∞—â–∏–µ –∫–∞–∫ –¥–∞–Ω–Ω—ã–µ, —Ç–∞–∫ –∏ –∫–æ–¥. –ü—Ä–∏–Ω—Ü–∏–ø—ã –æ–±—ä–µ–∫—Ç–Ω–æ-–æ—Ä–∏–µ–Ω—Ç–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–Ω–æ–≥–æ –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–∏—è - —ç—Ç–æ –∏–Ω–∫–∞–ø—Å—É–ª—è—Ü–∏—è, –∞–±—Å—Ç—Ä–∞–∫—Ü–∏—è, –ø–æ–ª–∏–º–æ—Ä—Ñ–∏–∑–º –∏ –Ω–∞—Å–ª–µ–¥–æ–≤–∞–Ω–∏–µ.

–Ø–∑—ã–∫–∏ –æ–±—ä–µ–∫—Ç–Ω–æ-–æ—Ä–∏–µ–Ω—Ç–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–Ω–æ–≥–æ –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–∏—è (–û–û–ü) –≤—Å—Ç—Ä–µ—á–∞—é—Ç—Å—è –≤–µ–∑–¥–µ, –∫—É–¥–∞ –±—ã –º—ã –Ω–∏ –ø–æ—Å–º–æ—Ç—Ä–µ–ª–∏. –ú–Ω–æ–≥–∏–µ –∏–∑ –Ω–∞–∏–±–æ–ª–µ–µ —à–∏—Ä–æ–∫–æ –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑—É–µ–º—ã—Ö —è–∑—ã–∫–æ–≤ –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–∏—è, —Å–æ—Å—Ç–∞–≤–ª—è—é—â–∏—Ö —Å–µ–≥–æ–¥–Ω—è –∫–æ–º–ø—å—é—Ç–µ—Ä–Ω—ã–π –º–∏—Ä, —è–≤–ª—è—é—Ç—Å—è –æ–±—ä–µ–∫—Ç–Ω–æ-–æ—Ä–∏–µ–Ω—Ç–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–Ω—ã–º–∏. –§–∞–∫—Ç–∏—á–µ—Å–∫–∏, –º–Ω–æ–≥–∏–µ –∫–æ–º–ø—å—é—Ç–µ—Ä–Ω—ã–µ –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º—ã –∏ –±–æ–ª—å—à–∞—è —á–∞—Å—Ç—å –∫–æ–Ω—Ç–µ–Ω—Ç–∞ –≤ –ò–Ω—Ç–µ—Ä–Ω–µ—Ç–µ –ø–æ—Å—Ç—Ä–æ–µ–Ω—ã –Ω–∞ –≤—ã—Å–æ–∫–æ—É—Ä–æ–≤–Ω–µ–≤—ã—Ö, & nbsp; –æ–±—ä–µ–∫—Ç–Ω–æ-–æ—Ä–∏–µ–Ω—Ç–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–Ω—ã—Ö —è–∑—ã–∫–∞—Ö . –ü–æ–Ω–∏–º–∞–Ω–∏–µ —Ç–æ–≥–æ, –∫–∞–∫ —Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∞—é—Ç –æ–±—ä–µ–∫—Ç–Ω–æ-–æ—Ä–∏–µ–Ω—Ç–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–Ω—ã–µ —è–∑—ã–∫–∏ –∏ –ø–æ—á–µ–º—É –æ–Ω–∏ –ø–æ–ª–µ–∑–Ω—ã, –≤–∞–∂–Ω–æ –ø–æ—á—Ç–∏ –¥–ª—è –∫–∞–∂–¥–æ–≥–æ —Å–ø–µ—Ü–∏–∞–ª–∏—Å—Ç–∞ –≤ –æ–±–ª–∞—Å—Ç–∏ –≤—ã—á–∏—Å–ª–µ–Ω–∏–π.

–í —ç—Ç–æ–π —Å—Ç–∞—Ç—å–µ –º—ã —Å–æ–±–∏—Ä–∞–µ–º—Å—è –≤–∑–≥–ª—è–Ω—É—Ç—å –Ω–∞ —Ç–æ, —á—Ç–æ —Ç–∞–∫–æ–µ –æ–±—ä–µ–∫—Ç–Ω–æ-–æ—Ä–∏–µ–Ω—Ç–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–Ω—ã–µ —è–∑—ã–∫–∏, –∏ –∏–∑—É—á–∏—Ç—å –∏—Ö –∑–∞ –∏ –ø—Ä–æ—Ç–∏–≤. –ú—ã —Ç–∞–∫–∂–µ —Ä–∞—Å—Å–º–æ—Ç—Ä–∏–º –∫—Ä–∞—Ç–∫–∏–π —Å–ø–∏—Å–æ–∫ –Ω–µ–∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä—ã—Ö –∏–∑ —Å–∞–º—ã—Ö –ø–æ–ø—É–ª—è—Ä–Ω—ã—Ö —è–∑—ã–∫–æ–≤ –û–û–ü, –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑—É–µ–º—ã—Ö —Å–µ–≥–æ–¥–Ω—è.

–ß—Ç–æ —Ç–∞–∫–æ–µ —è–∑—ã–∫ –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–∏—è?

–Ø–∑—ã–∫ –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–∏—è - —ç—Ç–æ –Ω–∞–±–æ—Ä –ø—Ä–∞–≤–∏–ª –∏ –ø—Ä–æ—Ü–µ–¥—É—Ä, –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä—ã–µ –ø–æ–∑–≤–æ–ª—è—é—Ç –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∏—Å—Ç–∞–º –¥–∞–≤–∞—Ç—å –∫–æ–º–ø—å—é—Ç–µ—Ä–∞–º –Ω–∞–±–æ—Ä –∏–Ω—Å—Ç—Ä—É–∫—Ü–∏–π –¥–ª—è –≤—ã–ø–æ–ª–Ω–µ–Ω–∏—è. –£ –∫–∞–∂–¥–æ–≥–æ —è–∑—ã–∫–∞ –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–∏—è –µ—Å—Ç—å —Å–æ–±—Å—Ç–≤–µ–Ω–Ω—ã–π —Å–∏–Ω—Ç–∞–∫—Å–∏—Å, –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä—ã–π –ø–æ—Å–ª–µ –∏–∑—É—á–µ–Ω–∏—è –ø–æ–∑–≤–æ–ª—è–µ—Ç —É–∫–∞–∑—ã–≤–∞—Ç—å –∫–æ–º–ø—å—é—Ç–µ—Ä—É, –∫–∞–∫–∏–µ –∑–∞–¥–∞—á–∏ –æ–Ω –¥–æ–ª–∂–µ–Ω –≤—ã–ø–æ–ª–Ω—è—Ç—å.

–ü–æ–¥—É–º–∞–π—Ç–µ –æ–± —ç—Ç–æ–º –∏–Ω–∞—á–µ. –ê–Ω–≥–ª–∏–π—Å–∫–∏–π - —ç—Ç–æ —è–∑—ã–∫, –Ω–∞ –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä–æ–º –≤—ã –º–æ–∂–µ—Ç–µ –æ–±—â–∞—Ç—å—Å—è —Å –∞–Ω–≥–ª–æ–≥–æ–≤–æ—Ä—è—â–∏–º–∏. –ö–æ–≥–¥–∞ –≤—ã –∑–Ω–∞–µ—Ç–µ –æ—Å–Ω–æ–≤–Ω—ã–µ –ø—Ä–∞–≤–∏–ª–∞ –∞–Ω–≥–ª–∏–π—Å–∫–æ–≥–æ —è–∑—ã–∫–∞, –≤—ã –º–æ–∂–µ—Ç–µ –ø–æ–≥–æ–≤–æ—Ä–∏—Ç—å —Å –ª—é–±—ã–º, –∫—Ç–æ –ø–æ–Ω–∏–º–∞–µ—Ç —Ç–µ –∂–µ –ø—Ä–∞–≤–∏–ª–∞. –ù–æ –∫–æ–º–ø—å—é—Ç–µ—Ä—ã –Ω–µ –º–æ–≥—É—Ç –ø–æ–Ω–∏–º–∞—Ç—å –∞–Ω–≥–ª–∏–π—Å–∫–∏–π –∏–ª–∏ –ª—é–±–æ–π –¥—Ä—É–≥–æ–π "—Ç—Ä–∞–¥–∏—Ü–∏–æ–Ω–Ω—ã–π" —è–∑—ã–∫. —è–∑—ã–∫ –≤ —ç—Ç–æ–º –æ—Ç–Ω–æ—à–µ–Ω–∏–∏.

–ß—Ç–æ —Ç–∞–∫–æ–µ Object- –Ø–∑—ã–∫–∏ –æ—Ä–∏–µ–Ω—Ç–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–Ω–æ–≥–æ –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–∏—è?

–ö–æ–º–ø—å—é—Ç–µ—Ä—ã - –º–æ—â–Ω—ã–µ –º–∞—à–∏–Ω—ã. –° –ø–æ–º–æ—â—å—é –∫–æ–º–ø—å—é—Ç–µ—Ä–∞ –º—ã –º–æ–∂–µ–º –æ—á–µ–Ω—å –±—ã—Å—Ç—Ä–æ –≤—ã—á–∏—Å–ª—è—Ç—å —á–∏—Å–ª–∞ –∏ —Å–æ–∑–¥–∞–≤–∞—Ç—å –ø–æ—Ç—Ä—è—Å–∞—é—â–∏–µ –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º—ã –¥–ª—è –º–Ω–æ–≥–∏—Ö –ø—Ä–∏–ª–æ–∂–µ–Ω–∏–π. –û–¥–Ω–∞–∫–æ, —á—Ç–æ–±—ã –≤–æ—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑–æ–≤–∞—Ç—å—Å—è —ç—Ç–æ–π –º–æ—â—å—é, –Ω–∞–º –Ω—É–∂–Ω–æ –æ–±—â–∞—Ç—å—Å—è —Å –∫–æ–º–ø—å—é—Ç–µ—Ä–æ–º - —ç—Ç–æ —á—Ç–æ-—Ç–æ –º–µ–Ω–µ–µ –±–æ–ª–µ–∑–Ω–µ–Ω–Ω–æ–µ, —á–µ–º –≤–≤–æ–¥ –≤—Ä—É—á–Ω—É—é –µ–¥–∏–Ω–∏—Ü –∏ –Ω—É–ª–µ–π. & Nbsp;

–°–ª–µ–¥–æ–≤–∞—Ç–µ–ª—å–Ω–æ, —É –Ω–∞—Å –µ—Å—Ç—å —è–∑—ã–∫–∏ –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–∏—è, –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä—ã–µ –ø–æ–¥–¥–µ—Ä–∂–∏–≤–∞—é—Ç—Å—è –º–∞—à–∏–Ω–Ω—ã–º –∫–æ–¥–æ–º. —ç—Ç–æ —É–∂–µ –±—ã–ª–æ –Ω–∞–ø–∏—Å–∞–Ω–æ. –û–¥–Ω–∞–∫–æ —á–µ–º –¥–∞–ª—å—à–µ –º—ã —É–¥–∞–ª—è–µ–º—Å—è –æ—Ç –º–∞—à–∏–Ω–Ω–æ–≥–æ –∫–æ–¥–∞, —Ç–µ–º –±–æ–ª–µ–µ –∞–±—Å—Ç—Ä–∞–∫—Ç–Ω—ã–º–∏ –∏ —Å–ø–µ—Ü–∏–∞–ª–∏–∑–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–Ω—ã–º–∏ —è–∑—ã–∫–∞–º–∏ —Å—Ç–∞–Ω–æ–≤—è—Ç—Å—è –≤ –æ–±—Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∫–µ –¥–∞–Ω–Ω—ã—Ö. –í–æ—Ç –ø–æ—á–µ–º—É —É –Ω–∞—Å —Ç–∞–∫ –º–Ω–æ–≥–æ —è–∑—ã–∫–æ–≤; –Ω–∏ –æ–¥–∏–Ω —è–∑—ã–∫ –Ω–µ –∏–¥–µ–∞–ª–µ–Ω, –∏ –≤—Å–µ –æ–Ω–∏ –∏–º–µ—é—Ç —Ä–∞–∑–Ω—ã–µ –∏ —á–∞—Å—Ç–∏—á–Ω–æ —Å–æ–≤–ø–∞–¥–∞—é—â–∏–µ –ø—Ä–∏–ª–æ–∂–µ–Ω–∏—è. & nbsp;

–ü–∞—Ä–∞–¥–∏–≥–º—ã –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–∏—è

–û—Ç–º–µ—Ç–∏–º, —á—Ç–æ —è–∑—ã–∫–∏ –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–∏—è —á–∞—Å—Ç–æ —Ä–∞–∑–¥–µ–ª—è—é—Ç—Å—è –ø–æ & nbsp; –ø–∞—Ä–∞–¥–∏–≥–º–µ –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–∏—è. –ü–∞—Ä–∞–¥–∏–≥–º–∞ –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–∏—è - —ç—Ç–æ –æ–¥–∏–Ω –∏–∑ —Å–ø–æ—Å–æ–±–æ–≤ –≤–∑–≥–ª—è–Ω—É—Ç—å –Ω–∞ –¥–∞–Ω–Ω—ã–µ –∏ –ø–æ–ª—É—á–∏—Ç—å –∫ –Ω–∏–º –¥–æ—Å—Ç—É–ø. & Nbsp; –¥–≤–µ –æ—Å–Ω–æ–≤–Ω—ã–µ –ø–∞—Ä–∞–¥–∏–≥–º—ã & nbsp; - –æ–±—ä–µ–∫—Ç–Ω–æ-–æ—Ä–∏–µ–Ω—Ç–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–Ω–∞—è –∏ & nbsp; –§—É–Ω–∫—Ü–∏–æ–Ω–∞–ª—å–Ω–æ , —Ö–æ—Ç—è –∏—Ö –≥–æ—Ä–∞–∑–¥–æ –±–æ–ª—å—à–µ (–≤–∫–ª—é—á–∞—è —Ç–µ, –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä—ã–µ –ª–µ–∂–∞—Ç –≤ –æ—Å–Ω–æ–≤–µ –≤—ã—à–µ–∏–∑–ª–æ–∂–µ–Ω–Ω—ã—Ö –ø—Ä–∏–Ω—Ü–∏–ø–æ–≤). & nbsp;

81% —É—á–∞—Å—Ç–Ω–∏–∫–æ–≤ –∑–∞—è–≤–∏–ª–∏, —á—Ç–æ, –ø–æ –∏—Ö –º–Ω–µ–Ω–∏—é, –±–æ–ª–µ–µ —É–≤–µ—Ä–µ–Ω—ã –≤ —Å–≤–æ–∏—Ö –ø–µ—Ä—Å–ø–µ–∫—Ç–∏–≤–∞—Ö —Ç—Ä—É–¥–æ—É—Å—Ç—Ä–æ–π—Å—Ç–≤–∞ –≤ —Å—Ñ–µ—Ä–µ –≤—ã—Å–æ–∫–∏—Ö —Ç–µ—Ö–Ω–æ–ª–æ–≥–∏–π –ø–æ—Å–ª–µ –ø–æ—Å–µ—â–µ–Ω–∏—è —É—á–µ–±–Ω–æ–≥–æ –ª–∞–≥–µ—Ä—è. –ü—Ä–æ–π–¥–∏—Ç–µ –∫—É—Ä—Å –æ–±—É—á–µ–Ω–∏—è —Å–µ–≥–æ–¥–Ω—è –∂–µ.

–°—Ä–µ–¥–Ω–∏–π –≤—ã–ø—É—Å–∫–Ω–∏–∫ —É—á–µ–±–Ω–æ–≥–æ –∫—É—Ä—Å–∞ –ø–æ—Ç—Ä–∞—Ç–∏–ª –º–µ–Ω–µ–µ —à–µ—Å—Ç–∏ –º–µ—Å—è—Ü–µ–≤ –Ω–∞ –ø–µ—Ä–µ—Ö–æ–¥–Ω—É—é –∫–∞—Ä—å–µ—Ä—É, –æ—Ç –Ω–∞—á–∞–ª–∞ —É—á–µ–±–Ω–æ–≥–æ –ª–∞–≥–µ—Ä—è –¥–æ –ø–æ–∏—Å–∫–∞ —Å–≤–æ–µ–π –ø–µ—Ä–≤–æ–π —Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç—ã.

–û–±—ä–µ–∫—Ç–Ω–æ-–æ—Ä–∏–µ–Ω—Ç–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–Ω–æ–µ –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–∏–µ –ø–æ—Å—Ç—Ä–æ–µ–Ω–æ –Ω–∞ –æ—Å–Ω–æ–≤–µ –≤–æ–∫—Ä—É–≥ –æ–±—ä–µ–∫—Ç–æ–≤, –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä—ã–µ –ø—Ä–µ–¥—Å—Ç–∞–≤–ª—è—é—Ç —Å–æ–±–æ–π —Å—Ç—Ä—É–∫—Ç—É—Ä—ã –¥–∞–Ω–Ω—ã—Ö, —Å–æ–¥–µ—Ä–∂–∞—â–∏–µ –∫–∞–∫ –¥–∞–Ω–Ω—ã–µ (—Å–≤–æ–π—Å—Ç–≤–∞ –∏–ª–∏ –∞—Ç—Ä–∏–±—É—Ç—ã), —Ç–∞–∫ –∏ –∫–æ–¥ (–ø—Ä–æ—Ü–µ–¥—É—Ä—ã –∏–ª–∏ –º–µ—Ç–æ–¥—ã). –û–±—ä–µ–∫—Ç—ã –º–æ–≥—É—Ç –∏–∑–º–µ–Ω—è—Ç—å —Å–µ–±—è —Å –ø–æ–º–æ—â—å—é " this " –∏–ª–∏ " self. " –í –±–æ–ª—å—à–∏–Ω—Å—Ç–≤–µ —è–∑—ã–∫–æ–≤ –û–û–ü –ø–æ—á—Ç–∏ –≤—Å–µ —è–≤–ª—è–µ—Ç—Å—è –æ–±—ä–µ–∫—Ç–æ–º, –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä—ã–π –º–æ–∂–µ—Ç –∏–º–µ—Ç—å –∫–∞–∫ –∑–Ω–∞—á–µ–Ω–∏—è, —Ç–∞–∫ –∏ –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª–Ω—è–µ–º—ã–π –∫–æ–¥. –ö–∞–∂–¥—ã–π –æ–±—ä–µ–∫—Ç —É–Ω–∏–∫–∞–ª–µ–Ω, –∏ —Ö–æ—Ç—è –æ–Ω –º–æ–∂–µ—Ç –±—ã—Ç—å –∫–æ–ø–∏–µ–π –¥—Ä—É–≥–æ–≥–æ –æ–±—ä–µ–∫—Ç–∞, –µ–≥–æ –ø–µ—Ä–µ–º–µ–Ω–Ω—ã–µ –º–æ–≥—É—Ç –æ—Ç–ª–∏—á–∞—Ç—å—Å—è –æ—Ç –ø–µ—Ä–µ–º–µ–Ω–Ω—ã—Ö –ª—é–±–æ–≥–æ –¥—Ä—É–≥–æ–≥–æ –æ–±—ä–µ–∫—Ç–∞. & Nbsp;

–û–±—ä–µ–∫—Ç—ã –≤ –æ–±—ä–µ–∫—Ç–Ω–æ-–æ—Ä–∏–µ–Ω—Ç–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–Ω–æ–º –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–Ω–æ–º –æ–±–µ—Å–ø–µ—á–µ–Ω–∏–∏ –º–æ–∂–Ω–æ —Ä–∞—Å—Å–º–∞—Ç—Ä–∏–≤–∞—Ç—å –∫–∞–∫ —Ä–µ–∞–ª—å–Ω—ã–µ –æ–±—ä–µ–∫—Ç—ã. –î—É–º–∞–π—Ç–µ –æ–± –æ–±—ä–µ–∫—Ç–µ, –∫–∞–∫ –æ —á–∞—Å–∞—Ö. –£ —ç—Ç–∏—Ö —á–∞—Å–æ–≤ –µ—Å—Ç—å —Å–≤–æ–π—Å—Ç–≤–∞. –û–Ω–∏ —Å–¥–µ–ª–∞–Ω—ã –∏–∑ –º–µ—Ç–∞–ª–ª–∞, –æ–Ω–∏ —á–µ—Ä–Ω—ã–µ. , —É –Ω–µ–≥–æ –µ—Å—Ç—å –æ–ø—Ä–µ–¥–µ–ª–µ–Ω–Ω—ã–π –≤–µ—Å. –ù–æ —ç—Ç–æ—Ç –æ–±—ä–µ–∫—Ç —Ç–∞–∫–∂–µ –¥–µ–ª–∞–µ—Ç —á—Ç–æ-—Ç–æ. –û–Ω –æ—Ç–æ–±—Ä–∞–∂–∞–µ—Ç –≤—Ä–µ–º—è, –∞ —Ç–∞–∫–∂–µ –º–æ–∂–µ—Ç –≤–ª–∏—è—Ç—å –Ω–∞ —Å–µ–±—è, –≤—Ä–∞—â–∞—è —à–µ—Å—Ç–µ—Ä–µ–Ω–∫–∏, —á—Ç–æ–±—ã –∏–∑–º–µ–Ω–∏—Ç—å –ø–æ–ª–æ–∂–µ–Ω–∏–µ —Å–≤–æ–∏—Ö —Ä—É–∫.

–ï—â–µ –æ–¥–Ω–∞ –æ—Å–æ–±–µ–Ω–Ω–æ—Å—Ç—å –æ–±—ä–µ–∫—Ç–æ–≤ –∑–∞–∫–ª—é—á–∞–µ—Ç—Å—è –≤ —Ç–æ–º, —á—Ç–æ –º—ã –Ω–µ –≤—Å–µ–≥–¥–∞ –Ω—É–∂–Ω–æ –∑–Ω–∞—Ç—å, –∫–∞–∫ —á–∞—Å—ã —Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∞—é—Ç, —á—Ç–æ–±—ã –∑–∞—Å—Ç–∞–≤–∏—Ç—å –∏—Ö —Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∞—Ç—å. –ï—Å–ª–∏ —á–∞—Å—ã —Ö–æ—Ä–æ—à–æ –ø–æ—Å—Ç—Ä–æ–µ–Ω—ã, –æ–Ω–∏ –±—É–¥—É—Ç –Ω–∞–¥–µ–∂–Ω–æ –æ–ø—Ä–µ–¥–µ–ª—è—Ç—å –≤—Ä–µ–º—è, –∏ –Ω–∞–º –Ω–µ –ø—Ä–∏–¥–µ—Ç—Å—è –≤–º–µ—à–∏–≤–∞—Ç—å—Å—è –≤ –∏—Ö –≤–Ω—É—Ç—Ä–µ–Ω–Ω—é—é —Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç—É. & nbsp;

–û–±—ä–µ–∫—Ç -–æ—Ä–∏–µ–Ω—Ç–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–Ω—ã–µ —è–∑—ã–∫–∏ –∏–º–µ—é—Ç –æ–±—ä–µ–∫—Ç—ã, –ø–æ—Ö–æ–∂–∏–µ –Ω–∞ –æ–±—ä–µ–∫—Ç—ã —Ä–µ–∞–ª—å–Ω–æ–≥–æ –º–∏—Ä–∞. –£ –Ω–∏—Ö –º–æ–≥—É—Ç –±—ã—Ç—å —Å–≤–æ–π—Å—Ç–≤–∞ –∏ —Ñ—É–Ω–∫—Ü–∏–∏. –û–Ω–∏ —Ç–∞–∫–∂–µ –∏–º–µ—é—Ç —Ç–µ–Ω–¥–µ–Ω—Ü–∏—é —Å–ª–µ–¥–æ–≤–∞—Ç—å –æ–ø—Ä–µ–¥–µ–ª–µ–Ω–Ω–æ–º—É –Ω–∞–±–æ—Ä—É –ø—Ä–∏–Ω—Ü–∏–ø–æ–≤.

–ü—Ä–∏–Ω—Ü–∏–ø—ã –æ–±—ä–µ–∫—Ç–Ω–æ-–æ—Ä–∏–µ–Ω—Ç–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–Ω–æ–≥–æ –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–∏—è

–û–±—ä–µ–∫—Ç–Ω–æ-–æ—Ä–∏–µ–Ω—Ç–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–Ω—ã–µ —è–∑—ã–∫–∏ –æ—Å–Ω–æ–≤–∞–Ω—ã –Ω–∞ —á–µ—Ç—ã—Ä–µ—Ö –ø—Ä–∏–Ω—Ü–∏–ø–∞—Ö. –≠—Ç–∏ —á–µ—Ç—ã—Ä–µ –ø—Ä–∏–Ω—Ü–∏–ø–∞ —è–≤–ª—è—é—Ç—Å—è –æ–±—â–∏–º–∏ —Å–≤–æ–π—Å—Ç–≤–∞–º–∏, –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä—ã–µ –æ–ø—Ä–µ–¥–µ–ª—è—é—Ç –∏—Ö –∏ –¥–µ–ª–∞—é—Ç –∏—Ö –∑–Ω–∞—á–∏—Ç–µ–ª—å–Ω–æ –±–æ–ª–µ–µ —ç—Ñ—Ñ–µ–∫—Ç–∏–≤–Ω—ã–º–∏. –ù–µ–∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä—ã–µ –Ω–∞–∑—ã–≤–∞—é—Ç –∏—Ö —á–µ—Ç—ã—Ä—å–º—è —Å—Ç–æ–ª–ø–∞–º–∏ –æ–±—ä–µ–∫—Ç–Ω–æ-–æ—Ä–∏–µ–Ω—Ç–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–Ω–æ–≥–æ –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–∏—è.

–ß–µ—Ç—ã—Ä–µ —Å—Ç–æ–ª–ø–∞ –æ–±—ä–µ–∫—Ç–Ω–æ-–æ—Ä–∏–µ–Ω—Ç–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–Ω–æ–≥–æ –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–∏—è:

  1. –ò–Ω–∫–∞–ø—Å—É–ª—è—Ü–∏—è
  2. –ê–±—Å—Ç—Ä–∞–∫—Ü–∏—è < / li>
  3. –ù–∞—Å–ª–µ–¥–æ–≤–∞–Ω–∏–µ
  4. –ü–æ–ª–∏–º–æ—Ä—Ñ–∏–∑–º

–ß–µ—Ç—ã—Ä–µ –ø—Ä–∏–Ω—Ü–∏–ø–∞

–î–∞–≤–∞–π—Ç–µ –∏—Å—Å–ª–µ–¥—É–µ–º —ç—Ç–∏ —á–µ—Ç—ã—Ä–µ –ø—Ä–∏–Ω—Ü–∏–ø–∞ –±–æ–ª–µ–µ –≥–ª—É–±–æ–∫–æ.

Java, Python, C ++, Lisp –∏ Perl - –≤—Å–µ —ç—Ç–æ –ø—Ä–∏–º–µ—Ä—ã –ø–æ–ø—É–ª—è—Ä–Ω—ã—Ö –æ–±—ä–µ–∫—Ç–Ω–æ-–æ—Ä–∏–µ–Ω—Ç–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–Ω—ã—Ö —è–∑—ã–∫–æ–≤ –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–∏—è. –û–Ω–∏ –ø–æ–¥–¥–µ—Ä–∂–∏–≤–∞—é—Ç –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–∏–µ —Å –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑–æ–≤–∞–Ω–∏–µ–º –ø–∞—Ä–∞–¥–∏–≥–º—ã –∫–ª–∞—Å—Å–æ–≤ –∏ –æ–±—ä–µ–∫—Ç–æ–≤.

–ü—è—Ç—å –∏–∑ —Å–∞–º—ã—Ö –ø–æ–ø—É–ª—è—Ä–Ω—ã—Ö –æ–±—ä–µ–∫—Ç–Ω–æ-–æ—Ä–∏–µ–Ω—Ç–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–Ω—ã—Ö —è–∑—ã–∫–æ–≤ –≤–∫–ª—é—á–∞—é—Ç:

  1. Java
  2. Python
  3. C ++
  4. Ruby
  5. C #
  • Java & nbsp; & ndash; & nbsp; < a href = "/ java-project-ideas /"> Java & nbsp; –µ—Å—Ç—å –ø–æ–≤—Å—é–¥—É, –∏ —ç—Ç–æ –æ–¥–∏–Ω –∏–∑ —Å–∞–º—ã—Ö –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑—É–µ–º—ã—Ö –∏ –≤–æ—Å—Ç—Ä–µ–±–æ–≤–∞–Ω–Ω—ã—Ö —è–∑—ã–∫–æ–≤ –∑–∞ –≤—Å–µ –≤—Ä–µ–º—è. –î–µ–≤–∏–∑ Java: "–Ω–∞–ø–∏—à–∏ –æ–¥–∏–Ω —Ä–∞–∑, –∑–∞–ø—É—Å—Ç–∏ –≥–¥–µ —É–≥–æ–¥–Ω–æ", –∏ —ç—Ç–æ –æ—Ç—Ä–∞–∂–∞–µ—Ç—Å—è –≤ –∫–æ–ª–∏—á–µ—Å—Ç–≤–µ –ø–ª–∞—Ç—Ñ–æ—Ä–º, –Ω–∞ –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä—ã—Ö –æ–Ω —Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∞–µ—Ç, –∏ –º–µ—Å—Ç–µ –µ–≥–æ –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑–æ–≤–∞–Ω–∏—è.
  • Python & nbsp; & ndash; & nbsp; Python & nbsp; —è–≤–ª—è–µ—Ç—Å—è —É–Ω–∏–≤–µ—Ä—Å–∞–ª—å–Ω—ã–º –∏ –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑—É–µ—Ç—Å—è –≤–æ –º–Ω–æ–≥–∏—Ö –º–µ—Å—Ç–∞—Ö. –û–¥–Ω–∞–∫–æ Python –ø—Ä–æ—á–Ω–æ –æ–±–æ—Å–Ω–æ–≤–∞–ª—Å—è –≤ & nbsp; –º–∞—à–∏–Ω–Ω–æ–º –æ–±—É—á–µ–Ω–∏–∏ & nbsp; –∏ & nbsp; –Ω–∞—É–∫–µ –æ –¥–∞–Ω–Ω—ã—Ö. –≠—Ç–æ –æ–¥–∏–Ω –∏–∑ –ø—Ä–µ–¥–ø–æ—á—Ç–∏—Ç–µ–ª—å–Ω—ã—Ö —è–∑—ã–∫–æ–≤ –¥–ª—è —ç—Ç–æ–π –Ω–æ–≤–æ–π –∏ –ø–æ—Å—Ç–æ—è–Ω–Ω–æ —Ä–∞—Å—Ç—É—â–µ–π –æ–±–ª–∞—Å—Ç–∏.
  • C ++ & nbsp; & ndash; & nbsp; C ++ –∏–º–µ–µ—Ç —Å–∫–æ—Ä–æ—Å—Ç—å & nbsp; C & nbsp; —Å —Ñ—É–Ω–∫—Ü–∏–æ–Ω–∞–ª—å–Ω–æ—Å—Ç—å—é –∫–ª–∞—Å—Å–æ–≤ –∏ –æ–±—ä–µ–∫—Ç–Ω–æ-–æ—Ä–∏–µ–Ω—Ç–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–Ω–∞—è –ø–∞—Ä–∞–¥–∏–≥–º–∞. –≠—Ç–æ —Å–∫–æ–º–ø–∏–ª–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–Ω—ã–π, –Ω–∞–¥–µ–∂–Ω—ã–π –∏ –º–æ—â–Ω—ã–π —è–∑—ã–∫. –§–∞–∫—Ç–∏—á–µ—Å–∫–∏, –µ–≥–æ –¥–∞–∂–µ –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑–æ–≤–∞–ª–∏ –¥–ª—è —Å–æ–∑–¥–∞–Ω–∏—è –∫–æ–º–ø–∏–ª—è—Ç–æ—Ä–æ–≤ –∏ –∏–Ω—Ç–µ—Ä–ø—Ä–µ—Ç–∞—Ç–æ—Ä–æ–≤ –¥–ª—è –¥—Ä—É–≥–∏—Ö —è–∑—ã–∫–æ–≤.
  • Ruby & ndash; Ruby - –µ—â–µ –æ–¥–∏–Ω —è–∑—ã–∫ –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–∏—è –æ–±—â–µ–≥–æ –Ω–∞–∑–Ω–∞—á–µ–Ω–∏—è. –û–Ω –±—ã–ª –ø–æ—Å—Ç—Ä–æ–µ–Ω –¥–ª—è –ø—Ä–æ—Å—Ç–æ—Ç—ã. –° —É—á–µ—Ç–æ–º —Å–∫–∞–∑–∞–Ω–Ω–æ–≥–æ, Ruby - –Ω–µ–≤–µ—Ä–æ—è—Ç–Ω–æ –º–æ—â–Ω—ã–π —è–∑—ã–∫. –°–æ–∑–¥–∞—Ç–µ–ª—å Ruby –Æ–∫–∏—Ö–∏—Ä–æ " Matz " –ú–∞—Ü—É–º–æ—Ç–æ —Å–∫–∞–∑–∞–ª: "–†—É–±–∏–Ω –æ—á–µ–Ω—å –ø—Ä–æ—Å—Ç –Ω–∞ –≤–∏–¥, –Ω–æ –æ—á–µ–Ω—å —Å–ª–æ–∂–µ–Ω –≤–Ω—É—Ç—Ä–∏, –∫–∞–∫ –∏ –Ω–∞—à–µ —á–µ–ª–æ–≤–µ—á–µ—Å–∫–æ–µ —Ç–µ–ª–æ".
  • C # & ndash; C # - —ç—Ç–æ —è–∑—ã–∫ –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–∏—è, —Ä–∞–∑—Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∞–Ω–Ω—ã–π Microsoft. –û–Ω –±—ã–ª —Ä–∞–∑—Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∞–Ω –¥–ª—è —É–ª—É—á—à–µ–Ω–∏—è —Å—É—â–µ—Å—Ç–≤—É—é—â–∏—Ö –∫–æ–Ω—Ü–µ–ø—Ü–∏–π C. C # –ø–æ–¥–¥–µ—Ä–∂–∏–≤–∞–µ—Ç –ø–ª–∞—Ç—Ñ–æ—Ä–º—É Microsoft .NET –≤–º–µ—Å—Ç–µ —Å–æ –º–Ω–æ–≥–∏–º–∏ –≤–µ–±-–ø—Ä–∏–ª–æ–∂–µ–Ω–∏—è–º–∏, –∏–≥—Ä–∞–º–∏, –Ω–∞—Å—Ç–æ–ª—å–Ω—ã–º–∏ –∏ –º–æ–±–∏–ª—å–Ω—ã–º–∏ –ø—Ä–∏–ª–æ–∂–µ–Ω–∏—è–º–∏.

–°—É—â–µ—Å—Ç–≤—É—é—Ç –∏ –¥—Ä—É–≥–∏–µ –æ–±—ä–µ–∫—Ç–Ω–æ-–æ—Ä–∏–µ–Ω—Ç–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–Ω—ã–µ —è–∑—ã–∫–∏. —á—Ç–æ –º—ã –Ω–µ —Ä–∞—Å—Å–º–æ—Ç—Ä–µ–ª–∏ –≤—ã—à–µ. Perl, Objective-C, Dart, Lisp, JavaScript –∏ PHP —Ç–æ–∂–µ —è–≤–ª—è—é—Ç—Å—è –æ–±—ä–µ–∫—Ç–Ω–æ-–æ—Ä–∏–µ–Ω—Ç–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–Ω—ã–º–∏ –∏–ª–∏ –ø–æ–¥–¥–µ—Ä–∂–∏–≤–∞—é—Ç –æ–±—ä–µ–∫—Ç–Ω–æ-–æ—Ä–∏–µ–Ω—Ç–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–Ω—ã–µ –ø—Ä–∏–Ω—Ü–∏–ø—ã.

–ü–ª—é—Å—ã –∏ –º–∏–Ω—É—Å—ã —è–∑—ã–∫–æ–≤ –æ–±—ä–µ–∫—Ç–Ω–æ-–æ—Ä–∏–µ–Ω—Ç–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–Ω–æ–≥–æ –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–∏—è

–ù–µ—Å–º–æ—Ç—Ä—è –Ω–∞ —Ç–æ, —á—Ç–æ —è–∑—ã–∫–∏ –û–û–ü –º–æ–≥—É—Ç –±—ã—Ç—å –º–æ—â–Ω—ã–º–∏, –æ–Ω–∏ –Ω–µ –º–æ–≥—É—Ç –±—ã—Ç—å –ø–æ–ª–µ–∑–Ω—ã –¥–ª—è –∫–∞–∂–¥–æ–π —Å–∏—Ç—É–∞—Ü–∏–∏ –∏ –∏–º–µ—é—Ç –Ω–µ–∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä—ã–π –±–∞–≥–∞–∂, –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä—ã–π –Ω–µ–æ–±—Ö–æ–¥–∏–º–æ —É—á–∏—Ç—ã–≤–∞—Ç—å. & nbsp;

–ü–ª—é—Å—ã

–í–æ–∑–º–æ–∂–Ω–æ—Å—Ç—å –ø–æ–≤—Ç–æ—Ä–Ω–æ–≥–æ –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑–æ–≤–∞–Ω–∏—è

–û–±—ä–µ–∫—Ç–Ω–æ-–æ—Ä–∏–µ–Ω—Ç–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–Ω—ã–π –∫–æ–¥ —á—Ä–µ–∑–≤—ã—á–∞–π–Ω–æ –º–æ–¥—É–ª–µ–Ω –ø–æ —Å–≤–æ–µ–π –∫–æ–Ω—Å—Ç—Ä—É–∫—Ü–∏–∏. –ë–ª–∞–≥–æ–¥–∞—Ä—è –ø–æ–ª–∏–º–æ—Ä—Ñ–∏–∑–º—É –∏ –∞–±—Å—Ç—Ä–∞–∫—Ü–∏–∏ –≤—ã –º–æ–∂–µ—Ç–µ —Å–æ–∑–¥–∞—Ç—å –æ–¥–Ω—É —Ñ—É–Ω–∫—Ü–∏—é, –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä—É—é –º–æ–∂–Ω–æ –±—É–¥–µ—Ç –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑–æ–≤–∞—Ç—å —Å–Ω–æ–≤–∞ –∏ —Å–Ω–æ–≤–∞. –í—ã —Ç–∞–∫–∂–µ –º–æ–∂–µ—Ç–µ —Å–∫–æ–ø–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞—Ç—å –∏–Ω—Ñ–æ—Ä–º–∞—Ü–∏—é –∏ —Ñ—É–Ω–∫—Ü–∏–∏, –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä—ã–µ —É–∂–µ –±—ã–ª–∏ –∑–∞–ø–∏—Å–∞–Ω—ã —Å –ø–æ–º–æ—â—å—é –Ω–∞—Å–ª–µ–¥–æ–≤–∞–Ω–∏—è. –≠—Ç–æ —ç–∫–æ–Ω–æ–º–∏—Ç –≤—Ä–µ–º—è, —Å–Ω–∏–∂–∞–µ—Ç —Å–ª–æ–∂–Ω–æ—Å—Ç—å, —ç–∫–æ–Ω–æ–º–∏—Ç –º–µ—Å—Ç–æ –∏ —É–ø—Ä–æ—â–∞–µ—Ç –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–∏–µ.

–ü–∞—Ä–∞–ª–ª–µ–ª—å–Ω–∞—è —Ä–∞–∑—Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∫–∞

–î–ª—è —á–∞—Å—Ç–µ–π –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º—ã –¥–æ–ª–∂–Ω—ã —Ä–∞–∑—Ä–∞–±–∞—Ç—ã–≤–∞—Ç—å—Å—è –æ—Ç–¥–µ–ª—å–Ω–æ –¥—Ä—É–≥ –æ—Ç –¥—Ä—É–≥–∞ –∏ –ø—Ä–∏ —ç—Ç–æ–º —Ñ—É–Ω–∫—Ü–∏–æ–Ω–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞—Ç—å –≤ —Å–æ–æ—Ç–≤–µ—Ç—Å—Ç–≤–∏–∏ —Å –æ–±—ä–µ–∫—Ç–Ω–æ-–æ—Ä–∏–µ–Ω—Ç–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–Ω—ã–º–∏ –ø—Ä–∏–Ω—Ü–∏–ø–∞–º–∏. –≠—Ç–æ –∑–Ω–∞—á–∏—Ç–µ–ª—å–Ω–æ —É–ø—Ä–æ—â–∞–µ—Ç –ø–∞—Ä–∞–ª–ª–µ–ª—å–Ω—É—é —Ä–∞–∑—Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∫—É –¥–ª—è –±–æ–ª–µ–µ –∫—Ä—É–ø–Ω—ã—Ö –∫–æ–º–∞–Ω–¥ —Ä–∞–∑—Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç—á–∏–∫–æ–≤.

–û–±—Å–ª—É–∂–∏–≤–∞–Ω–∏–µ

–ü–æ—Å–∫–æ–ª—å–∫—É –±–æ–ª—å—à–∞—è —á–∞—Å—Ç—å, –µ—Å–ª–∏ –Ω–µ –≤–µ—Å—å, –Ω–∞—à –∫–æ–¥ –Ω–∞—Ö–æ–¥–∏—Ç—Å—è –≤ –æ–¥–Ω–æ–º –º–µ—Å—Ç–µ, –≤—ã–∑—ã–≤–∞–µ—Ç—Å—è –∏ –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑—É–µ—Ç—Å—è –ø–æ–≤—Ç–æ—Ä–Ω–æ, —ç—Ç–æ—Ç –∫–æ–¥ –Ω–∞–º–Ω–æ–≥–æ –ø—Ä–æ—â–µ –ø–æ–¥–¥–µ—Ä–∂–∏–≤–∞—Ç—å. –í–º–µ—Å—Ç–æ —Ç–æ–≥–æ, —á—Ç–æ–±—ã –ø–æ –æ—Ç–¥–µ–ª—å–Ω–æ—Å—Ç–∏ –∏—Å–ø—Ä–∞–≤–ª—è—Ç—å —Å–æ—Ç–Ω—é —Ä–∞–∑–ª–∏—á–Ω—ã—Ö —Å–ª—É—á–∞–µ–≤ –≤—ã–∑–æ–≤–∞ —Ñ—É–Ω–∫—Ü–∏–∏, –º—ã –º–æ–∂–µ–º –∏—Å–ø—Ä–∞–≤–∏—Ç—å –æ–¥–Ω—É –º–æ–¥—É–ª—å–Ω—É—é –∏ –ø–æ–ª–∏–º–æ—Ä—Ñ–Ω—É—é —Ñ—É–Ω–∫—Ü–∏—é.

–ë–µ–∑–æ–ø–∞—Å–Ω–æ—Å—Ç—å

–•–æ—Ç—è –±–æ–ª—å—à–∏–Ω—Å—Ç–≤–æ —è–∑—ã–∫–∏ –∏–º–µ—é—Ç –Ω–µ–∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä—É—é –±–µ–∑–æ–ø–∞—Å–Ω–æ—Å—Ç—å, –æ–±—ä–µ–∫—Ç–Ω–æ-–æ—Ä–∏–µ–Ω—Ç–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–Ω—ã–µ —è–∑—ã–∫–∏ —É–¥–æ–±–Ω—ã, –ø–æ—Ç–æ–º—É —á—Ç–æ –±–µ–∑–æ–ø–∞—Å–Ω–æ—Å—Ç—å –≤—Å—Ç—Ä–æ–µ–Ω–∞ —Å –∏–Ω–∫–∞–ø—Å—É–ª—è—Ü–∏–µ–π. –î—Ä—É–≥–∏–µ –º–µ—Ç–æ–¥—ã –∏ –∫–ª–∞—Å—Å—ã –Ω–µ –º–æ–≥—É—Ç –ø–æ–ª—É—á–∏—Ç—å –¥–æ—Å—Ç—É–ø –∫ —á–∞—Å—Ç–Ω—ã–º –¥–∞–Ω–Ω—ã–º –ø–æ —É–º–æ–ª—á–∞–Ω–∏—é, –∞ –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º—ã, –Ω–∞–ø–∏—Å–∞–Ω–Ω—ã–µ –Ω–∞ —è–∑—ã–∫–∞—Ö –û–û–ü, –±–æ–ª–µ–µ –±–µ–∑–æ–ø–∞—Å–Ω—ã –¥–ª—è —ç—Ç–æ–≥–æ. & nbsp;

< h4> –ú–æ–¥—É–ª—å–Ω–æ—Å—Ç—å

–û–±—ä–µ–∫—Ç–Ω–æ-–æ—Ä–∏–µ–Ω—Ç–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–Ω—ã–µ —è–∑—ã–∫–∏ –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–∏—è —Ä–∞–∑–±–∏–≤–∞—é—Ç –ø—Ä–∏–ª–æ–∂–µ–Ω–∏–µ –Ω–∞ –æ–±—ä–µ–∫—Ç—ã –∏ –∫–ª–∞—Å—Å—ã. –≠—Ç–æ –ø–æ–ª–µ–∑–Ω–æ, –ø–æ—Å–∫–æ–ª—å–∫—É –ø—Ä–∏–¥–∞–µ—Ç –≤–∞—à–µ–º—É –ø—Ä–∏–ª–æ–∂–µ–Ω–∏—é –±–æ–ª–µ–µ –º–æ–¥—É–ª—å–Ω—É—é —Å—Ç—Ä—É–∫—Ç—É—Ä—É. –ú–æ–¥—É–ª—å–Ω—ã–π –∫–æ–¥ –ª–µ–≥—á–µ —á–∏—Ç–∞—Ç—å . –ü–æ—ç—Ç–æ–º—É –µ, –µ–≥–æ –ª–µ–≥—á–µ –ø–æ–¥–¥–µ—Ä–∂–∏–≤–∞—Ç—å.

–ú–∏–Ω—É—Å—ã

–ß–∞—Å—Ç–æ –±–µ—Å–ø–æ—Ä—è–¥–æ–∫

–ü–æ—Å–∫–æ–ª—å–∫—É –æ–±—ä–µ–∫—Ç–Ω–æ-–æ—Ä–∏–µ–Ω—Ç–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–Ω—ã–π —è–∑—ã–∫–∏ –Ω–∞—Å—Ç–æ–ª—å–∫–æ –Ω–∞—Å—Ç—Ä–∞–∏–≤–∞–µ–º—ã –∏ –º–∞—Å—à—Ç–∞–±–∏—Ä—É–µ–º—ã, —á—Ç–æ –º–æ–∂–Ω–æ –ª–µ–≥–∫–æ –ø–æ—Ç–µ—Ä—è—Ç—å –ø–æ–Ω–∏–º–∞–Ω–∏–µ —Ç–æ–≥–æ, –∫–∞–∫ —Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∞–µ—Ç –∫–æ–¥. –ö–æ–¥ –û–û–ü –º–æ–∂–µ—Ç —Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∞—Ç—å –ø–æ-—Ä–∞–∑–Ω–æ–º—É. –°—É—â–µ—Å—Ç–≤—É–µ—Ç –º–Ω–æ–∂–µ—Å—Ç–≤–æ –º–µ—Ç–æ–¥–æ–ª–æ–≥–∏–π –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–∏—è –≤ –û–û–ü, –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä—ã–µ –ø–ª–æ—Ö–æ —Å–æ—á–µ—Ç–∞—é—Ç—Å—è —Å –¥—Ä—É–≥–∏–º–∏ –º–µ—Ç–æ–¥–æ–ª–æ–≥–∏—è–º–∏, –Ω–µ—ç—Ñ—Ñ–µ–∫—Ç–∏–≤–Ω—ã –∏–ª–∏ —Å–ª–æ–∂–Ω—ã –≤ –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑–æ–≤–∞–Ω–∏–∏.

–¢—Ä–µ–±—É–µ—Ç—Å—è –¥–æ–ø–æ–ª–Ω–∏—Ç–µ–ª—å–Ω–æ–µ –ø–ª–∞–Ω–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–∏–µ

–ü–æ—Å–∫–æ–ª—å–∫—É —ç—Ç–∏ —è–∑—ã–∫–∏ –Ω–∞—Å—Ç–æ–ª—å–∫–æ –º–æ–¥—É–ª—å–Ω—ã –∏ –º–∞—Å—à—Ç–∞–±–∏—Ä—É–µ–º—ã, –æ—Ç–∫–∞–∑ –æ—Ç —á–µ—Ç–∫–æ–≥–æ –ø—Ä–æ–µ–∫—Ç–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–∏—è –∑–∞—Ä–∞–Ω–µ–µ - —ç—Ç–æ –≤–µ—Ä–Ω—ã–π –ø—É—Ç—å –∫ –∫–∞—Ç–∞—Å—Ç—Ä–æ—Ñ–µ. –°–æ–∑–¥–∞–Ω–∏–µ —ç—Ñ—Ñ–µ–∫—Ç–∏–≤–Ω–æ–π –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º—ã —Ç—Ä–µ–±—É–µ—Ç —Ç–≤–µ—Ä–¥–æ–≥–æ –ø–ª–∞–Ω–∞ –≤ –±–æ–ª—å—à–µ–π —Å—Ç–µ–ø–µ–Ω–∏, —á–µ–º —Å –¥—Ä—É–≥–∏–º–∏ –ø–∞—Ä–∞–¥–∏–≥–º–∞–º–∏ –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–∏—è.

"–ö–∞—Ä—å–µ—Ä–Ω–∞—è –∫–∞—Ä–º–∞ –≤–æ—à–ª–∞ –≤ –º–æ—é –∂–∏–∑–Ω—å —Ç–æ–≥–¥–∞, –∫–æ–≥–¥–∞ —è –±–æ–ª—å—à–µ –≤—Å–µ–≥–æ –≤ –Ω–µ–π –Ω—É–∂–¥–∞–ª–∞—Å—å, –∏ –±—ã—Å—Ç—Ä–æ –ø–æ–º–æ–≥–ª–∞ –º–Ω–µ –ø—Ä–æ–π—Ç–∏ –∫—É—Ä—Å –æ–±—É—á–µ–Ω–∏—è. –ß–µ—Ä–µ–∑ –¥–≤–∞ –º–µ—Å—è—Ü–∞ –ø–æ—Å–ª–µ –æ–∫–æ–Ω—á–∞–Ω–∏—è —É—á–µ–±—ã —è –Ω–∞—à–µ–ª —Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç—É –º–æ–µ–π –º–µ—á—Ç—ã, –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä–∞—è —Å–æ–æ—Ç–≤–µ—Ç—Å—Ç–≤—É–µ—Ç –º–æ–∏–º —Ü–µ–Ω–Ω–æ—Å—Ç—è–º –∏ —Ü–µ–ª—è–º –≤ –∂–∏–∑–Ω–∏! "

–í–µ–Ω–µ—Ä–∞, –∏–Ω–∂–µ–Ω–µ—Ä-–ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∏—Å—Ç –≤ Rockbot

–≠—Ç–æ —Å—Ç–æ–ª—å–∫–æ –ø—Ä–æ—Ñ–∏, –ø–æ—Å–∫–æ–ª—å–∫—É —ç—Ç–æ –º–∏–Ω—É—Å. –û–±—ä–µ–∫—Ç—ã –∏ —Ñ—É–Ω–∫—Ü–∏–∏ –º–æ–≥—É—Ç —Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∞—Ç—å –Ω–µ–∑–∞–≤–∏—Å–∏–º–æ. –û–Ω–∏ –º–æ–≥—É—Ç –ø–æ–ª—É—á–∞—Ç—å –∏–Ω—Ñ–æ—Ä–º–∞—Ü–∏—é –∏ (–æ–±—ã—á–Ω–æ) –≤–æ–∑–≤—Ä–∞—â–∞—Ç—å –Ω–∞–¥–µ–∂–Ω—ã–µ —Ä–µ–∑—É–ª—å—Ç–∞—Ç—ã. –í —Ä–µ–∑—É–ª—å—Ç–∞—Ç–µ –æ–Ω–∏ –º–æ–≥—É—Ç –æ–∫–∞–∑–∞—Ç—å—Å—è —á–µ—Ä–Ω—ã–º–∏ —è—â–∏–∫–∞–º–∏, –∞ —ç—Ç–æ –æ–∑–Ω–∞—á–∞–µ—Ç, —á—Ç–æ —Ç–æ, —á—Ç–æ –æ–Ω–∏ –¥–µ–ª–∞—é—Ç, –Ω–µ –≤—Å–µ–≥–¥–∞ –æ—á–µ–≤–∏–¥–Ω–æ. –•–æ—Ç—è –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∏—Å—Ç, –≤–µ—Ä–æ—è—Ç–Ω–æ, —Å–æ–∑–¥–∞–ª —ç—Ç–æ—Ç –æ–±—ä–µ–∫—Ç –∏ –∑–Ω–∞–µ—Ç, —á—Ç–æ –æ–Ω –¥–µ–ª–∞–µ—Ç, —è–∑—ã–∫–∏ –û–û–ü –ø—Ä–æ—Å—Ç–æ –Ω–µ —Ç–∞–∫ –ø—Ä–æ–∑—Ä–∞—á–Ω—ã, –∫–∞–∫ –¥—Ä—É–≥–∏–µ —è–∑—ã–∫–∏.

–ü—Ä–æ–∏–∑–≤–æ–¥–∏—Ç–µ–ª—å–Ω–æ—Å—Ç—å

–û–±—ä–µ–∫—Ç–Ω–æ-–æ—Ä–∏–µ–Ω—Ç–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–Ω—ã–µ. —è–∑—ã–∫–∏ —á–∞—Å—Ç–æ —Å—Ç—Ä–∞–¥–∞—é—Ç –æ—Ç —Å–Ω–∏–∂–µ–Ω–∏—è –ø—Ä–æ–∏–∑–≤–æ–¥–∏—Ç–µ–ª—å–Ω–æ—Å—Ç–∏. –ü—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º—ã, –Ω–∞–ø–∏—Å–∞–Ω–Ω—ã–µ –Ω–∞ —è–∑—ã–∫–∞—Ö –û–û–ü, —á–∞—Å—Ç–æ –±–æ–ª—å—à–µ –∏ —Ç—Ä–µ–±—É—é—Ç –±–æ–ª—å—à–µ –≤—ã—á–∏—Å–ª–∏—Ç–µ–ª—å–Ω—ã—Ö —É—Å–∏–ª–∏–π –¥–ª—è –∑–∞–ø—É—Å–∫–∞, —á–µ–º —Ñ—É–Ω–∫—Ü–∏–æ–Ω–∞–ª—å–Ω—ã–µ —è–∑—ã–∫–∏. –û–¥–Ω–∞–∫–æ —ç—Ç–æ –Ω–µ –≤—Å–µ–≥–¥–∞ —Ç–∞–∫ –∏–ª–∏ –≤–∞–∂–Ω–æ. C ++ - —è–∑—ã–∫ –û–û–ü, –Ω–æ —ç—Ç–æ –æ–¥–∏–Ω –∏–∑ —Å–∞–º—ã—Ö –±—ã—Å—Ç—Ä—ã—Ö –¥–æ—Å—Ç—É–ø–Ω—ã—Ö —è–∑—ã–∫–æ–≤. –í —Ç–æ –∂–µ –≤—Ä–µ–º—è —Å–∫–æ—Ä–æ—Å—Ç—å –Ω–µ –≤—Å–µ–≥–¥–∞ –≤–∞–∂–Ω–∞. –†–∞–∑–Ω–∏—Ü–∞ –≤ —Å–∫–æ—Ä–æ—Å—Ç–∏ —Å—Ç–∞–Ω–æ–≤–∏—Ç—Å—è –æ—á–µ–≤–∏–¥–Ω–æ–π —Ç–æ–ª—å–∫–æ –ø—Ä–∏ –æ–±—Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∫–µ –æ–≥—Ä–æ–º–Ω—ã—Ö –∏–ª–∏ —Å–ª–æ–∂–Ω—ã—Ö –≤—ã—á–∏—Å–ª–µ–Ω–∏–π –∏–ª–∏ –≤ —Å–ª—É—á–∞—è—Ö, –∫–æ–≥–¥–∞ —Ç—Ä–µ–±—É–µ—Ç—Å—è —ç–∫—Å—Ç—Ä–µ–º–∞–ª—å–Ω–∞—è —Å–∫–æ—Ä–æ—Å—Ç—å.

–¢–µ–ø–µ—Ä—å —É –≤–∞—Å –µ—Å—Ç—å —á–µ—Ç–∫–æ–µ –ø—Ä–µ–¥—Å—Ç–∞–≤–ª–µ–Ω–∏–µ –æ —Ç–æ–º, —á—Ç–æ —Ç–∞–∫–æ–µ –æ–±—ä–µ–∫—Ç–Ω–æ-–æ—Ä–∏–µ–Ω—Ç–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–Ω—ã–π —è–∑—ã–∫, –¥–ª—è —á–µ–≥–æ –æ–Ω –Ω—É–∂–µ–Ω , –∏ –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä—ã–µ —è–≤–ª—è—é—Ç—Å—è –Ω–∞–∏–±–æ–ª–µ–µ –ø–æ–ø—É–ª—è—Ä–Ω—ã–º–∏. –ü—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–∏–µ –Ω–∞ —ç—Ç–∏—Ö —è–∑—ã–∫–∞—Ö –º–æ–∂–µ—Ç –±—ã—Ç—å —Å—Ç–æ–ª—å –∂–µ –ø—Ä–∏—è—Ç–Ω—ã–º, —Å–∫–æ–ª—å –∏ –ø—Ä–∏–±—ã–ª—å–Ω—ã–º, –∞ –≤–∞—à–∞ –∫–∞—Ä—å–µ—Ä–∞ –≤ –æ–±–ª–∞—Å—Ç–∏ —Ä–∞–∑—Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∫–∏ –Ω–∞—Ö–æ–¥–∏—Ç—Å—è –≤—Å–µ–≥–æ –≤ –Ω–µ—Å–∫–æ–ª—å–∫–∏—Ö —à–∞–≥–∞—Ö –æ—Ç –≤–∞—Å.

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