Котлин против Java: сравнение и контраст

Java - –æ–¥–∏–Ω –∏–∑ —Å–∞–º—ã—Ö –ø–æ–ø—É–ª—è—Ä–Ω—ã—Ö —è–∑—ã–∫–æ–≤ –≤ –º–∏—Ä–µ. –û–¥–Ω–æ –∏–∑ –æ—Å–Ω–æ–≤–Ω—ã—Ö –ø—Ä–∏–º–µ–Ω–µ–Ω–∏–π Java - –æ–ø–µ—Ä–∞—Ü–∏–æ–Ω–Ω—ã–µ —Å–∏—Å—Ç–µ–º—ã Android. –û–¥–Ω–∞–∫–æ Java –Ω–µ —Å–æ–∑–¥–∞–Ω–∞ –¥–ª—è Android, –∏ –∏–∑-–∑–∞ —ç—Ç–æ–≥–æ –º–Ω–æ–≥–∏–µ —Ñ—É–Ω–∫—Ü–∏–∏ Java –Ω–µ –Ω—É–∂–Ω—ã –¥–ª—è —Ä–∞–∑—Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∫–∏ Android. –û—Å–Ω–æ–≤–∞–Ω–∏–µ–º –¥–ª—è —Ä–∞–∑—Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∫–∏ Kotlin —è–≤–ª—è–µ—Ç—Å—è —Å–æ–∑–¥–∞–Ω–∏–µ –æ–ø—Ç–∏–º–∏–∑–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–Ω–æ–π Java, –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä–∞—è –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑—É–µ—Ç JVM –∏ –ø—Ä–∏ —ç—Ç–æ–º —Ö–æ—Ä–æ—à–æ —Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∞–µ—Ç —Å Java. –ö–∞–∫ –ø—Ä–µ–µ–º–Ω–∏–∫, –ö–æ—Ç–ª–∏–Ω, –ø—Ä–æ—Ç–∏–≤–æ—Å—Ç–æ–∏—Ç –Ω—ã–Ω–µ—à–Ω–µ–º—É –∫–æ—Ä–æ–ª—é –Ø–≤–µ? –î–∞–≤–∞–π—Ç–µ —É–∑–Ω–∞–µ–º! –ù–æ —Å–Ω–∞—á–∞–ª–∞ –¥–∞–≤–∞–π—Ç–µ –ø–æ—Å–º–æ—Ç—Ä–∏–º –Ω–∞ –æ–±–∞ —è–∑—ã–∫–∞ –ø–æ –æ—Ç–¥–µ–ª—å–Ω–æ—Å—Ç–∏. & Nbsp;

–£ Java –≤–µ—Å–æ–º–∞—è –∫–æ—Ä–æ–Ω–∞. –ï–≥–æ —á–∞—Å—Ç–æ –Ω–∞–∑—ã–≤–∞—é—Ç –Ω–∞–∏–±–æ–ª–µ–µ —á–∞—Å—Ç–æ –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑—É–µ–º—ã–º —è–∑—ã–∫–æ–º, –∏ –µ–≥–æ –ø–æ–ª–∏—Ç–∏–∫–∞ —Ä–∞–∑—Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∫–∏ - "–Ω–∞–ø–∏—Å–∞—Ç—å –æ–¥–∏–Ω —Ä–∞–∑, –∑–∞–ø—É—Å—Ç–∏—Ç—å –≥–¥–µ —É–≥–æ–¥–Ω–æ"; (WORA) –æ–∑–Ω–∞—á–∞–µ—Ç, —á—Ç–æ —É –Ω–µ–≥–æ –µ—Å—Ç—å –º–Ω–æ–∂–µ—Å—Ç–≤–æ –ø—Ä–∏–ª–æ–∂–µ–Ω–∏–π –∫–∞–∫ –Ω–∞ —Ä–∞–±–æ—á–µ–º —Å—Ç–æ–ª–µ, —Ç–∞–∫ –∏ –≤–Ω–µ –µ–≥–æ. –û–Ω —Å—Ç–∞—Ç–∏—á–µ—Å–∫–∏ —Ç–∏–ø–∏–∑–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω, —Å–∫–æ–º–ø–∏–ª–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω –∏ —É–Ω–∏–≤–µ—Ä—Å–∞–ª–µ–Ω. Java —Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∞–µ—Ç –Ω–∞ –≤–∏—Ä—Ç—É–∞–ª—å–Ω–æ–π –º–∞—à–∏–Ω–µ Java (JVM), –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä–∞—è –¥–µ–π—Å—Ç–≤—É–µ—Ç –∫–∞–∫ –∏–Ω—Ç–µ—Ä–ø—Ä–µ—Ç–∞—Ç–æ—Ä –¥–ª—è —É–∂–µ —Å–∫–æ–º–ø–∏–ª–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–Ω–æ–π Java. –Ø–∑—ã–∫ –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–∏—è Java –±—ã–ª —Ä–∞–∑—Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∞–Ω Sun Microsystems –∏ –ø–µ—Ä–≤–æ–Ω–∞—á–∞–ª—å–Ω–æ –±—ã–ª –≤—ã–ø—É—â–µ–Ω –µ—â–µ –≤ 1995 –≥–æ–¥—É.

Java —è–≤–ª—è–µ—Ç—Å—è –ø—Ä–µ–¥–ø–æ—á—Ç–∏—Ç–µ–ª—å–Ω—ã–º —è–∑—ã–∫–æ–º –¥–ª—è Android. –•–æ—Ç—è –æ–ø–µ—Ä–∞—Ü–∏–æ–Ω–Ω—ã–µ —Å–∏—Å—Ç–µ–º—ã Android –Ω–µ –Ω–∞–ø–∏—Å–∞–Ω—ã –Ω–∞ Java, –≤—Å–µ –ø—Ä–∏–ª–æ–∂–µ–Ω–∏—è Android –Ω–∞–ø–∏—Å–∞–Ω—ã –Ω–∞ Java (–ø–æ –∫—Ä–∞–π–Ω–µ–π –º–µ—Ä–µ —á–∞—Å—Ç–∏—á–Ω–æ) –∏ –∑–∞–ø—É—Å–∫–∞—é—Ç—Å—è –Ω–∞ —Å–ø–µ—Ü–∏–∞–ª—å–Ω–æ–π JVM, —Å–æ–∑–¥–∞–Ω–Ω–æ–π –¥–ª—è —É—Å—Ç—Ä–æ–π—Å—Ç–≤ —Å –Ω–∏–∑–∫–∏–º —ç–Ω–µ—Ä–≥–æ–ø–æ—Ç—Ä–µ–±–ª–µ–Ω–∏–µ–º.

Kotlin

–ö–æ—Ç–ª–∏–Ω –∑–∞–≤–∏–¥—É–µ—Ç –∫–æ—Ä–æ–Ω–µ Java. Kotlin, –ø—Ä–µ–¥—Å—Ç–∞–≤–ª–µ–Ω–Ω—ã–π JetBrains –≤ 2011 –≥–æ–¥—É, —è–≤–ª—è–µ—Ç—Å—è –∫—Ä–æ—Å—Å–ø–ª–∞—Ç—Ñ–æ—Ä–º–µ–Ω–Ω—ã–º, —Å—Ç–∞—Ç–∏—á–µ—Å–∫–∏ —Ç–∏–ø–∏–∑–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–Ω—ã–º, –æ—Ç–∫—Ä—ã—Ç—ã–º –∏—Å—Ö–æ–¥–Ω—ã–º –∫–æ–¥–æ–º –∏ —É–Ω–∏–≤–µ—Ä—Å–∞–ª—å–Ω—ã–º. Kotlin —Ç–∞–∫–∂–µ —Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∞–µ—Ç –Ω–∞ JVM, –∫–∞–∫ –∏ Java. –û–Ω —Ç–∞–∫–∂–µ –∏–º–µ–µ—Ç –≤—ã–≤–æ–¥ —Ç–∏–ø–∞, —á—Ç–æ –æ–∑–Ω–∞—á–∞–µ—Ç, —á—Ç–æ, —Ö–æ—Ç—è —è–∑—ã–∫ —Å—Ç–∞—Ç–∏—á–µ—Å–∫–∏ —Ç–∏–ø–∏–∑–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω, –æ–±—ä—è–≤–ª–µ–Ω–∏—è —Ç–∏–ø–æ–≤ –Ω–µ –¥–æ–ª–∂–Ω—ã –±—ã—Ç—å —è–≤–Ω—ã–º–∏. –≠—Ç–æ –≤—Å–µ–≥–æ –ª–∏—à—å –æ–¥–Ω–æ –∏–∑ –æ—Ç—Ä–∞–∂–µ–Ω–∏–π —Ç–æ–≥–æ, –∫–∞–∫ Kotlin —Ä–∞–∑—Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∞–Ω, —á—Ç–æ–±—ã –±—ã—Ç—å —ç—Ñ—Ñ–µ–∫—Ç–∏–≤–Ω—ã–º, –ø—Ä–∞–∫—Ç–∏—á–Ω—ã–º –∏ –¥–µ–π—Å—Ç–≤–µ–Ω–Ω—ã–º. & Nbsp;

–û–¥–Ω–æ–π –∏–∑ –æ—Å–Ω–æ–≤–Ω—ã—Ö —Ü–µ–ª–µ–π Kotlin —è–≤–ª—è–µ—Ç—Å—è –ø–ª–∞—Ç—Ñ–æ—Ä–º–∞ Android. –¶–µ–ª—å Kotlin –∑–∞–∫–ª—é—á–∞–ª–∞—Å—å –Ω–µ —Ç–æ–ª—å–∫–æ –≤ —Å–æ–∑–¥–∞–Ω–∏–∏ —ç—Ñ—Ñ–µ–∫—Ç–∏–≤–Ω–æ–≥–æ, —Å–æ–≤—Ä–µ–º–µ–Ω–Ω–æ–≥–æ –∏ –ø—Ä–∞–∫—Ç–∏—á–Ω–æ–≥–æ —è–∑—ã–∫–∞ –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–∏—è, –Ω–æ –∏ –≤ —Å–æ–∑–¥–∞–Ω–∏–∏ —è–∑—ã–∫–∞ –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–∏—è. —ç—Ç–æ –±–æ–ª–µ–µ —ç—Ñ—Ñ–µ–∫—Ç–∏–≤–Ω–µ–µ, —Å–æ–≤—Ä–µ–º–µ–Ω–Ω–µ–µ –∏ –ø—Ä–∞–∫—Ç–∏—á–Ω–µ–µ, —á–µ–º Java. –ö–∞–∫ —ç—Ç–æ —Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∞–µ—Ç?

Java VS Kotlin

–≠—Ç–∏ —è–∑—ã–∫–∏ –ª–µ–≥–∫–æ —Å—Ä–∞–≤–Ω–∏–≤–∞—Ç—å, –∏ —É –Ω–∏—Ö –µ—Å—Ç—å –æ–¥–Ω–∞ —Ü–µ–ª—å, –≤ –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä–æ–π –æ–Ω–∏ –±–æ–ª—å—à–µ –≤—Å–µ–≥–æ –∫–æ–Ω–∫—É—Ä–∏—Ä—É—é—Ç: Android. –ü–æ—ç—Ç–æ–º—É –º—ã —Å—Ä–∞–≤–Ω–∏–º —ç—Ç–∏ –¥–≤–∞ —è–∑—ã–∫–∞ –≤ –∑–∞–≤–∏—Å–∏–º–æ—Å—Ç–∏ –æ—Ç —Ç–æ–≥–æ, –∫–∞–∫ –æ–Ω–∏ —Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∞—é—Ç –¥–ª—è —Ä–∞–∑—Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∫–∏ –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–Ω–æ–≥–æ –æ–±–µ—Å–ø–µ—á–µ–Ω–∏—è –Ω–∞ —ç—Ç–æ–π –ø–ª–∞—Ç—Ñ–æ—Ä–º–µ (–¥–∞–∂–µ –µ—Å–ª–∏ —É –æ–±–æ–∏—Ö –µ—Å—Ç—å –ø—Ä–∏–ª–æ–∂–µ–Ω–∏—è –≤–Ω–µ Android. ).

"h3": & nbsp;

–ù–∞–±–æ—Ä —Ç–µ–∫—Å—Ç–∞ –∏ —Å–∏–Ω—Ç–∞–∫—Å–∏—Å

–≠—Ç–æ —Ç–æ, —á—Ç–æ –∫–æ–¥ Kotlin –±—ã–ª —Ä–∞–∑—Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∞–Ω –¥–ª—è —Ç–æ–≥–æ, —á—Ç–æ–±—ã –¥–µ–ª–∞—Ç—å –ª—É—á—à–µ, —á–µ–º Java. –í—ã–≤–æ–¥ —Ç–∏–ø–∞ Kotlin –∏–≥—Ä–∞–µ—Ç –±–æ–ª—å—à—É—é —Ä–æ–ª—å –≤ —ç—Ç–æ–π –ø–æ–±–µ–¥–µ, —Ç–∞–∫ –∫–∞–∫ –æ–Ω —Å–æ–¥–µ—Ä–∂–∏—Ç –¥–æ–ø–æ–ª–Ω–∏—Ç–µ–ª—å–Ω—ã–µ —Å—Ç—Ä–æ–∫–∏ –∫–æ–¥–∞, –Ω–µ–æ–±—Ö–æ–¥–∏–º—ã–µ –¥–ª—è –æ–±—ä—è–≤–ª–µ–Ω–∏—è –ø–µ—Ä–µ–º–µ–Ω–Ω—ã—Ö. –≠—Ç–æ —Ç–∞–∫–∂–µ –ø–æ–º–æ–≥–∞–µ—Ç –ø—Ä–∏ –≤—ã–∑—ã–≤–∞—é—â–µ–º –≥–æ–ª–æ–≤–Ω—É—é –±–æ–ª—å " nullpointerexception " –ø—Ä–æ–±–ª–µ–º–∞ –≤ Java. Kotlin –ø–æ—Å—Ç—Ä–æ–∏–ª –Ω—É–ª–µ–≤—É—é –±–µ–∑–æ–ø–∞—Å–Ω–æ—Å—Ç—å; –æ–Ω –Ω–µ –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑—É–µ—Ç –Ω—É–ª–µ–≤—ã–µ –∑–Ω–∞—á–µ–Ω–∏—è, –ø–æ—ç—Ç–æ–º—É –æ–Ω –Ω–µ –º–æ–∂–µ—Ç —Å—Ç–æ–ª–∫–Ω—É—Ç—å—Å—è —Å —ç—Ç–∏–º–∏ –∏—Å–∫–ª—é—á–µ–Ω–∏—è–º–∏.

81% —É—á–∞—Å—Ç–Ω–∏–∫–æ–≤ –∑–∞—è–≤–∏–ª–∏, —á—Ç–æ –æ–Ω–∏ –ø–æ—á—É–≤—Å—Ç–≤–æ–≤–∞–ª–∏ —Å–µ–±—è –±–æ–ª–µ–µ —É–≤–µ—Ä–µ–Ω–Ω—ã–º–∏ –≤ —Å–≤–æ–∏—Ö –ø–µ—Ä—Å–ø–µ–∫—Ç–∏–≤–∞—Ö —Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç—ã –≤ —Å—Ñ–µ—Ä–µ —Ç–µ—Ö–Ω–æ–ª–æ–≥–∏–π –ø–æ—Å–ª–µ –ø–æ—Å–µ—â–µ–Ω–∏—è —É—á–µ–±–Ω–æ–≥–æ –ª–∞–≥–µ—Ä—è. –ü–æ–ª—É—á–∏—Ç–µ –ø—Ä–∏–≥–ª–∞—à–µ–Ω–∏–µ –Ω–∞ —É—á–µ–±–Ω—ã–π –ª–∞–≥–µ—Ä—å —Å–µ–≥–æ–¥–Ω—è.

–°—Ä–µ–¥–Ω–∏–π –≤—ã–ø—É—Å–∫–Ω–∏–∫ —É—á–µ–±–Ω–æ–≥–æ –ª–∞–≥–µ—Ä—è –ø–æ—Ç—Ä–∞—Ç–∏–ª –º–µ–Ω–µ–µ —à–µ—Å—Ç–∏ –º–µ—Å—è—Ü–µ–≤ –Ω–∞ –ø–µ—Ä–µ—Ö–æ–¥–Ω—É—é –∫–∞—Ä—å–µ—Ä—É, –æ—Ç –Ω–∞—á–∞–ª–∞ —É—á–µ–±–Ω–æ–≥–æ –ª–∞–≥–µ—Ä—è –¥–æ –ø–æ–∏—Å–∫–∞ —Å–≤–æ–µ–π –ø–µ—Ä–≤–æ–π —Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç—ã.

Kotlin —Ç–∞–∫–∂–µ —É—Å—Ç—Ä–∞–Ω—è–µ—Ç –º–Ω–æ–≥–æ –ø—Ä–æ–±–ª–µ–º —à–∞–±–ª–æ–Ω–Ω—ã–π –∫–æ–¥. –ù–∞–ø—Ä–∏–º–µ—Ä, —Ç–æ—á–∫–∞ —Å –∑–∞–ø—è—Ç–æ–π –±–æ–ª—å—à–µ –Ω–µ –Ω—É–∂–Ω–∞ –¥–ª—è –∑–∞–≤–µ—Ä—à–µ–Ω–∏—è –æ–ø–µ—Ä–∞—Ç–æ—Ä–∞ —Å—Ç—Ä–æ–∫–∏, –¥–æ—Å—Ç–∞—Ç–æ—á–Ω–æ –Ω–æ–≤–æ–π —Å—Ç—Ä–æ–∫–∏. & Nbsp;

–û–¥–Ω–∞–∫–æ –∫—Ä–∞—Ç–∫–æ—Å—Ç—å Kotlin —Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∞–µ—Ç –ø—Ä–æ—Ç–∏–≤ —ç—Ç–æ–≥–æ –¥–ª—è –Ω–æ–≤—ã—Ö –ø–æ–ª—å–∑–æ–≤–∞—Ç–µ–ª–µ–π. –î–ª—è —Å—É—â–µ—Å—Ç–≤—É—é—â–∏—Ö —Ä–∞–∑—Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç—á–∏–∫–æ–≤ Java-–ø—Ä–∏–ª–æ–∂–µ–Ω–∏–π –¥–ª—è Android –ø–µ—Ä–µ–∫–ª—é—á–∏—Ç—å—Å—è –Ω–µ—Å–ª–æ–∂–Ω–æ, Kotlin, –ø–æ —Å—É—Ç–∏, –ø—Ä–µ–¥—Å—Ç–∞–≤–ª—è–µ—Ç —Å–æ–±–æ–π –±–æ–ª–µ–µ –≥–ª–∞–¥–∫—É—é Java. –û–¥–Ω–∞–∫–æ –¥–ª—è –Ω–æ–≤—ã—Ö –ø–æ–ª—å–∑–æ–≤–∞—Ç–µ–ª–µ–π, –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä—ã–µ –ø—Ä–∞–∫—Ç–∏—á–µ—Å–∫–∏ –Ω–µ –∑–Ω–∞—é—Ç Java, –∫—Ä–∞—Ç–∫–æ—Å—Ç—å Kotlin –º–æ–∂–µ—Ç –±—ã—Ç—å —Ç—Ä—É–¥–Ω–æ–π –¥–ª—è –ø–æ–Ω–∏–º–∞–Ω–∏—è. & Nbsp;

–°–∫–æ—Ä–æ—Å—Ç—å

–°–∫–æ—Ä–æ—Å—Ç—å –≤—ã–ø–æ–ª–Ω–µ–Ω–∏—è –ø–æ—Å–ª–µ –∫–æ–º–ø–∏–ª—è—Ü–∏–∏ –¥–æ–ª–∂–Ω–∞ –±—ã—Ç—å –ø–æ—á—Ç–∏ –æ–¥–∏–Ω–∞–∫–æ–≤–æ–π –¥–ª—è –æ–±–æ–∏—Ö —ç—Ç–∏—Ö —è–∑—ã–∫–æ–≤, –ø–æ—Å–∫–æ–ª—å–∫—É –æ–Ω–∏ –ø—Ä–µ–æ–±—Ä–∞–∑—É—é—Ç—Å—è –≤ –æ–¥–∏–Ω –∏ —Ç–æ—Ç –∂–µ —Ç–∏–ø –Ω–∏–∑–∫–æ—É—Ä–æ–≤–Ω–µ–≤–æ–≥–æ —è–∑—ã–∫–∞, –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä—ã–π –ø–æ–∑–∂–µ –∏–Ω—Ç–µ—Ä–ø—Ä–µ—Ç–∏—Ä—É–µ—Ç—Å—è –≤–æ –≤—Ä–µ–º—è –≤—ã–ø–æ–ª–Ω–µ–Ω–∏—è. –ü–æ–¥ —Å–∫–æ—Ä–æ—Å—Ç—å—é –∑–¥–µ—Å—å –ø–æ–Ω–∏–º–∞–µ—Ç—Å—è –≤—Ä–µ–º—è –∫–æ–º–ø–∏–ª—è—Ü–∏–∏: —Å–∫–æ–ª—å–∫–æ –≤—Ä–µ–º–µ–Ω–∏ –ø–æ—Ç—Ä–µ–±—É–µ—Ç—Å—è, —á—Ç–æ–±—ã –ø—Ä–µ–≤—Ä–∞—Ç–∏—Ç—å –≤–∞—à –≤—ã—Å–æ–∫–æ—É—Ä–æ–≤–Ω–µ–≤—ã–π –∫–æ–¥ –≤ —ç—Ç–æ—Ç –Ω–∏–∑–∫–æ—É—Ä–æ–≤–Ω–µ–≤—ã–π. & Nbsp;

–í—Ä–µ–º—è –∫–æ–º–ø–∏–ª—è—Ü–∏–∏ –∏–º–µ–µ—Ç –∑–Ω–∞—á–µ–Ω–∏–µ; –∫–æ–≥–¥–∞ –≤—ã —Å–æ–∑–¥–∞–µ—Ç–µ –∏ –æ—Ç–ª–∞–∂–∏–≤–∞–µ—Ç–µ —Å–≤–æ–∏ –ø—Ä–∏–ª–æ–∂–µ–Ω–∏—è Android, –≤–∞–º, –≤–µ—Ä–æ—è—Ç–Ω–æ, –ø—Ä–∏–¥–µ—Ç—Å—è –∫–æ–º–ø–∏–ª–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞—Ç—å –∏ –ø–µ—Ä–µ–∫–æ–º–ø–∏–ª–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞—Ç—å –±–µ—Å—á–∏—Å–ª–µ–Ω–Ω–æ–µ –∫–æ–ª–∏—á–µ—Å—Ç–≤–æ —Ä–∞–∑. –ë—ã—Å—Ç—Ä–∞—è –∫–æ–º–ø–∏–ª—è—Ü–∏—è —Ç–≤–æ—Ä–∏—Ç —á—É–¥–µ—Å–∞ –¥–ª—è —Å–∫–æ—Ä–æ—Å—Ç–∏ —Ä–∞–∑—Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∫–∏. & nbsp ;

–í –±–æ–ª—å—à–∏–Ω—Å—Ç–≤–µ —Ç–µ—Å—Ç–æ–≤ –∫–æ–º–ø–∏–ª—è—Ü–∏—è Kotlin –æ—Ç—Å—Ç–∞–µ—Ç. Java –≤ –Ω–∞—Å—Ç–æ—è—â–µ–µ –≤—Ä–µ–º—è –∫–æ–º–ø–∏–ª–∏—Ä—É–µ—Ç—Å—è –±—ã—Å—Ç—Ä–µ–µ, —á–µ–º Kotlin, —Ö–æ—Ç—è Kotlin –¥–æ–≥–æ–Ω—è–µ—Ç. –†–∞–∑–Ω–∏—Ü–∞ –≤ —Å–∫–æ—Ä–æ—Å—Ç–∏ –Ω–µ —è–≤–ª—è–µ—Ç—Å—è —Å—É—â–µ—Å—Ç–≤–µ–Ω–Ω–æ–π: —Ö–æ—Ç—è —ç—Ç–æ –∑–∞–≤–∏—Å–∏—Ç –æ—Ç –º–Ω–æ–∂–µ—Å—Ç–≤–∞ —Ñ–∞–∫—Ç–æ—Ä–æ–≤, –°–∫–æ—Ä–æ—Å—Ç—å Java –≤ —Å—Ä–µ–¥–Ω–µ–º —É–≤–µ–ª–∏—á–∏–≤–∞–µ—Ç—Å—è –ø—Ä–∏–º–µ—Ä–Ω–æ –Ω–∞ 13% .

–í–∑–∞–∏–º–æ–¥–µ–π—Å—Ç–≤–∏–µ

–≠—Ç–æ –µ—â–µ –æ–¥–Ω–æ –∫–ª—é—á–µ–≤–æ–µ —Å–ª–æ–≤–æ –≤ –ø—Ä–æ–¥–≤–∏–∂–µ–Ω–∏–∏ Kotlin. Java —è–≤–ª—è–µ—Ç—Å—è —è–∑—ã–∫–æ–º –æ–±—â–µ–≥–æ –Ω–∞–∑–Ω–∞—á–µ–Ω–∏—è, –æ–Ω –Ω–µ –ø—Ä–µ–¥–Ω–∞–∑–Ω–∞—á–µ–Ω –¥–ª—è Android. –ò–∑-–∑–∞ —ç—Ç–æ–≥–æ –æ–Ω –Ω–µ –≤—Å–µ–≥–¥–∞ –≤–æ—Å–ø—Ä–æ–∏–∑–≤–æ–¥–∏—Ç —Ö–æ—Ä–æ—à–æ —Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∞–µ—Ç —Å –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–Ω—ã–º –æ–±–µ—Å–ø–µ—á–µ–Ω–∏–µ–º Android. & nbsp;

Kotlin —É–º–µ–µ—Ç, –∏ Kotlin —Ç–∞–∫–∂–µ —Ö–æ—Ä–æ—à–æ —Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∞–µ—Ç —Å Java; –æ–Ω –º–æ–∂–µ—Ç —Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∞—Ç—å –≤–º–µ—Å—Ç–µ —Å –¥—Ä—É–≥–∏–º –∫–æ–¥–æ–º Java. –û–Ω –¥–∞–∂–µ —Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∞–µ—Ç –Ω–∞ JVM, –∫–∞–∫ —É–ø–æ–º–∏–Ω–∞–ª–æ—Å—å —Ä–∞–Ω–µ–µ. –≠—Ç–æ –¥–∞–µ—Ç –æ–≥—Ä–æ–º–Ω—ã–µ –ø—Ä–µ–∏–º—É—â–µ—Å—Ç–≤–∞ –≤—Å–µ–º, –∫—Ç–æ —Ö–æ—á–µ—Ç –ø–µ—Ä–µ–π—Ç–∏ —Å Java –Ω–∞ Kotlin. –ò–º –¥–∞–∂–µ –Ω–µ –Ω—É–∂–Ω–æ –ø–µ—Ä–µ–Ω–æ—Å–∏—Ç—å –≤—Å–µ —Å—Ä–∞–∑—É, —á—Ç–æ–±—ã –≤—Å–µ –ø–æ-–ø—Ä–µ–∂–Ω–µ–º—É —Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∞–ª–æ. & Nbsp;

Java —É–∂–µ –¥–æ–ª–≥–æ–µ –≤—Ä–µ–º—è —è–≤–ª—è–µ—Ç—Å—è –∫–æ—Ä–æ–ª–µ–º. –û–Ω –∏–º–µ–µ—Ç –æ–≥—Ä–æ–º–Ω–æ–µ —Å–æ–æ–±—â–µ—Å—Ç–≤–æ, –æ–∫—Ä—É–∂–∞—é—â–µ–µ –µ–≥–æ, –∏ —Ä–∞–∑—Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∫—É –º–æ–±–∏–ª—å–Ω—ã—Ö –ø—Ä–∏–ª–æ–∂–µ–Ω–∏–π –Ω–∞ Java. –£ Kotlin —Ç–æ–∂–µ –µ—Å—Ç—å —Å–æ–æ–±—â–µ—Å—Ç–≤–æ, –Ω–æ –µ–≥–æ —Ä–∞–∑–º–µ—Ä –¥–∞–∂–µ –Ω–µ —Ç–∞–∫–æ–π, –∫–∞–∫ —É Java. –≠—Ç–æ –æ–∑–Ω–∞—á–∞–µ—Ç, —á—Ç–æ –º–æ–∂–µ—Ç –±—ã—Ç—å —Ç—Ä—É–¥–Ω–µ–µ –Ω–∞–π—Ç–∏ –æ—Ç–≤–µ—Ç—ã –Ω–∞ –≤–∞—à–∏ –≤–æ–ø—Ä–æ—Å—ã, —Å–≤—è–∑–∞–Ω–Ω—ã–µ —Å Kotlin, –∏ –º–µ–Ω—å—à–µ —Ä–µ—Å—É—Ä—Å–æ–≤ –¥–ª—è –æ–±—É—á–µ–Ω–∏—è –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–∏—é –Ω–∞ Kotlin. & Nbsp;

–†–µ–∑—é–º–µ < / h2>

–ö–æ—Ä–æ—á–µ –≥–æ–≤–æ—Ä—è, Kotlin —Ä–∞–∑—Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∞–Ω –∫–∞–∫ —É–ª—É—á—à–µ–Ω–Ω–∞—è –≤–µ—Ä—Å–∏—è Java. Kotlin –∏–º–µ–µ—Ç –±–æ–ª–µ–µ –∫–æ—Ä–æ—Ç–∫–∏–π –∫–æ–¥, –±–æ–ª—å—à–µ —Ñ—É–Ω–∫—Ü–∏–π –±–µ–∑–æ–ø–∞—Å–Ω–æ—Å—Ç–∏ –∏ –±–æ–ª–µ–µ –ª–µ–≥–∫–∏–π –Ω–∞–±–æ—Ä —Ç–µ–∫—Å—Ç–∞. –•–æ—Ç—è Java –ø–æ-–ø—Ä–µ–∂–Ω–µ–º—É –±—ã—Å—Ç—Ä–µ–µ –∏ –∏–º–µ–µ—Ç –±–æ–ª—å—à—É—é –ø–æ–ª—å–∑–æ–≤–∞—Ç–µ–ª—å—Å–∫—É—é –±–∞–∑—É, Kotlin –≤–∑–∞–∏–º–æ–¥–µ–π—Å—Ç–≤—É–µ—Ç —Å Java –∏ —Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∞–µ—Ç –Ω–∞ JVM, –ø–æ—ç—Ç–æ–º—É Kotlin —Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∞–µ—Ç –Ω–∞ Android —Ç–∞–∫ –∂–µ —Ö–æ—Ä–æ—à–æ, –∫–∞–∫ –∏ –Ω–∞ Java.

–ß—Ç–æ –≤—ã–±—Ä–∞—Ç—å?

–°–æ–≥–ª–∞—Å–Ω–æ Jetbrains, Kotlin –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑—É–µ—Ç—Å—è –¥–ª—è –ø–æ—á—Ç–∏ 60% –∏–∑ 1000 –ª—É—á—à–∏—Ö –ø—Ä–∏–ª–æ–∂–µ–Ω–∏–π –¥–ª—è Android –Ω–∞ –∫–æ–Ω–µ—Ü 2019 –≥. . –ù–µ—Å–º–æ—Ç—Ä—è –Ω–∞ –Ω–µ—Å–∫–æ–ª—å–∫–æ –Ω–µ–¥–æ—Å—Ç–∞—Ç–∫–æ–≤, Kotlin - —ç—Ç–æ –Ω–µ —Ç–æ–ª—å–∫–æ –±—É–¥—É—â–µ–µ —Ä–∞–∑—Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∫–∏ –ø—Ä–∏–ª–æ–∂–µ–Ω–∏–π –¥–ª—è Android, –Ω–æ –∏ –Ω–∞—Å—Ç–æ—è—â–µ–µ. Kotlin —Ç–∞–∫–∂–µ –∏–º–µ–µ—Ç –º–Ω–æ–∂–µ—Å—Ç–≤–æ –≤—Å—Ç—Ä–æ–µ–Ω–Ω—ã—Ö —Ñ—É–Ω–∫—Ü–∏–π –±–µ–∑–æ–ø–∞—Å–Ω–æ—Å—Ç–∏, –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä—ã—Ö –Ω–µ—Ç –≤ Java. Kotlin, –ø–æ—Ö–æ–∂–µ, –ø—Ä–µ—É—Å–ø–µ–ª –≤ —Å–≤–æ–µ–º –¥–∏–∑–∞–π–Ω–µ, —á—Ç–æ–±—ã –±—ã—Ç—å –ª—É—á—à–µ Java.

Kotlin —Ç–∞–∫–∂–µ –ª—é–±—è—Ç —Ä–∞–∑—Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç—á–∏–∫–∏. –°–æ–≥–ª–∞—Å–Ω–æ –æ–ø—Ä–æ—Å—É –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∏—Å—Ç–æ–≤ Stack Overflow, –æ–Ω –∑–∞–Ω–∏–º–∞–µ—Ç 4-–µ –º–µ—Å—Ç–æ –≤ –∫–∞—Ç–µ–≥–æ—Ä–∏–∏ " —Å–∞–º—ã—Ö –ª—é–±–∏–º—ã—Ö & rsquo ;. Java, –¥–ª—è —Å–ø—Ä–∞–≤–∫–∏, –≤—Ö–æ–¥–∏—Ç –≤ —Ç–æ–ø-10 " —Å–∞–º—ã–µ —É–∂–∞—Å–Ω—ã–µ " —è–∑—ã–∫–∏.

–í—ã–±–æ—Ä Java –¥–ª—è —Ä–∞–∑—Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∫–∏ –ø–æ–¥ Android - –Ω–µ–ø–ª–æ—Ö–æ–π –≤—ã–±–æ—Ä, –¥–ª—è –±–æ–ª—å—à–∏–Ω—Å—Ç–≤–∞ –ª—é–¥–µ–π –≤—ã–±–æ—Ä –Ω–∞—Å–ª–µ–¥–Ω–∏–∫–∞ (–ö–æ—Ç–ª–∏–Ω–∞) - –ª—É—á—à–∏–π –≤—ã–±–æ—Ä. –û–¥–Ω–∞–∫–æ –¥–ª—è —Ü–µ–ª–µ–π, –Ω–µ —Å–≤—è–∑–∞–Ω–Ω—ã—Ö —Å —Ä–∞–∑—Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∫–æ–π Android, Java –≤—Å–µ –µ—â–µ –≤–ø–µ—Ä–µ–¥–∏. & Nbsp;

–ï—Å–ª–∏ –≤—ã —É–∂–µ –∑–Ω–∞–µ—Ç–µ Java, –ø–µ—Ä–µ—Ö–æ–¥ –Ω–∞ Kotlin –º–æ–∂–µ—Ç –∏–∑–º–µ–Ω–∏—Ç—å –≤–∞—à –ø–æ–¥—Ö–æ–¥ –∫ —Ä–∞–∑—Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∫–µ –∫ –ª—É—á—à–µ–º—É. –≠—Ç–æ –º–æ–∂–µ—Ç –ø–æ–≤—ã—Å–∏—Ç—å –±–µ–∑–æ–ø–∞—Å–Ω–æ—Å—Ç—å, —É—Å–∫–æ—Ä–∏—Ç—å —Ä–∞–∑—Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∫—É, –∏ –≤–∞–º —ç—Ç–æ –º–æ–∂–µ—Ç –ø—Ä–æ—Å—Ç–æ –ø–æ–Ω—Ä–∞–≤–∏—Ç—å—Å—è. –ï—Å–ª–∏ –≤—ã —Ö–æ—Ç–∏—Ç–µ –∑–∞–Ω—è—Ç—å—Å—è —Ä–∞–∑—Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∫–æ–π –Ω–∞ Kotlin –∏–ª–∏ Java, —Å–µ–π—á–∞—Å —Å–∞–º–æ–µ –≤—Ä–µ–º—è —ç—Ç–æ —Å–¥–µ–ª–∞—Ç—å. –í–∞–º –¥–æ—Å—Ç—É–ø–Ω—ã –¥–µ—Å—è—Ç–∫–∏ —ç—Ñ—Ñ–µ–∫—Ç–∏–≤–Ω—ã—Ö —É—á–µ–±–Ω—ã—Ö –∫—É—Ä—Å–æ–≤ –ø–æ –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–∏—é, –ø–æ—ç—Ç–æ–º—É –Ω–µ—Ç –≤–µ—Å–∫–∏—Ö –ø—Ä–∏—á–∏–Ω –Ω–µ –Ω–∞—á–∏–Ω–∞—Ç—å —Å–µ–≥–æ–¥–Ω—è.

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