Является ли JavaScript Front End или Back End?

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JavaScript –≤–µ–∑–¥–µ. –Ø–≤–ª—è—è—Å—å –æ–¥–Ω–∏–º –∏–∑ –æ—Å–Ω–æ–≤–Ω—ã—Ö —è–∑—ã–∫–æ–≤ –≤–µ–±-—Ä–∞–∑—Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∫–∏ (–Ω–∞—Ä—è–¥—É —Å HTML –∏ CSS), –æ–Ω –ø–æ–º–æ–≥–∞–µ—Ç –ø–æ–¥–¥–µ—Ä–∂–∏–≤–∞—Ç—å –±–æ–ª—å—à—É—é —á–∞—Å—Ç—å –≤–µ–±-—Å–∞–π—Ç–æ–≤ –≤ –ò–Ω—Ç–µ—Ä–Ω–µ—Ç–µ. –ò –ø–æ—Å–∫–æ–ª—å–∫—É –æ–Ω —á–∞—Å—Ç–∏—á–Ω–æ –æ—Ç–≤–µ—á–∞–µ—Ç –∑–∞ –¥–æ–±–∞–≤–ª–µ–Ω–∏–µ —Ñ—É–Ω–∫—Ü–∏–æ–Ω–∞–ª—å–Ω–æ—Å—Ç–∏, –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä—É—é –º—ã –ø—Ä–∏–≤—ã–∫–ª–∏ –æ–∂–∏–¥–∞—Ç—å –æ—Ç —Å–æ–≤—Ä–µ–º–µ–Ω–Ω—ã—Ö –≤–µ–±-—Å–∞–π—Ç–æ–≤, —á—Ä–µ–∑–≤—ã—á–∞–π–Ω–æ –≤–∞–∂–Ω–æ –∑–Ω–∞—Ç—å, –∫–∞–∫ —Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∞–µ—Ç –ò–Ω—Ç–µ—Ä–Ω–µ—Ç. & Nbsp; –ü–µ—Ä–≤—ã–π –µ—Å—Ç–µ—Å—Ç–≤–µ–Ω–Ω—ã–π –≤–æ–ø—Ä–æ—Å: –∏–Ω—Ç–µ—Ä—Ñ–µ–π—Å Javascript –∏–ª–∏ —Å–µ—Ä–≤–µ—Ä–Ω–∞—è —á–∞—Å—Ç—å? & Nbsp;

–û–¥–Ω–æ –∏–∑ —Å–∞–º—ã—Ö –±–æ–ª—å—à–∏—Ö —Ä–∞–∑–ª–∏—á–∏–π, –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä–æ–µ –Ω–µ–æ–±—Ö–æ–¥–∏–º–æ —Å–¥–µ–ª–∞—Ç—å –≤ –≤–µ–±-—Ä–∞–∑—Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∫–µ, - —ç—Ç–æ —Ä–∞–∑–Ω–∏—Ü–∞ –º–µ–∂–¥—É –∏–Ω—Ç–µ—Ä—Ñ–µ–π—Å–Ω–æ–π –∏ –≤–Ω—É—Ç—Ä–µ–Ω–Ω–µ–π —Ä–∞–∑—Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∫–æ–π < / –∞>. –≠—Ç–æ –¥–æ—Å—Ç–∞—Ç–æ—á–Ω–æ –≤–∞–∂–Ω–æ, —á—Ç–æ–±—ã —Ä–∞–∑—Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç—á–∏–∫–∏ —á–∞—Å—Ç–æ —Å—á–∏—Ç–∞–ª–∏ —Å–µ–±—è —Å–ø–µ—Ü–∏–∞–ª–∏—Å—Ç–∞–º–∏ –≤ –æ–±–ª–∞—Å—Ç–∏ —Ñ—Ä–æ–Ω—Ç–µ–Ω–¥ –∏–ª–∏ –±—ç–∫—ç–Ω–¥ —Ä–∞–∑—Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∫–∏. –≠—Ç–æ –Ω–∞—Å—Ç–æ–ª—å–∫–æ —Ä–∞—Å–ø—Ä–æ—Å—Ç—Ä–∞–Ω–µ–Ω–æ, —á—Ç–æ —É –Ω–∞—Å –µ—Å—Ç—å –æ—Ç–¥–µ–ª—å–Ω—ã–µ –∏–º–µ–Ω–∞ –¥–ª—è —Ç–µ—Ö, –∫—Ç–æ —Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∞–µ—Ç –≤ –æ–±–æ–∏—Ö, –Ω–∞–∑—ã–≤–∞—è –∏—Ö " full stack " —Ä–∞–∑—Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç—á–∏–∫–∞–º . & nbsp;

–ß—Ç–æ —Ç–∞–∫–æ–µ Front End —Ä–∞–∑—Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç—á–∏–∫?

–í–Ω–µ—à–Ω–∏–π –∏–Ω—Ç–µ—Ä—Ñ–µ–π—Å —Ä–∞–∑—Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç—á–∏–∫–∏ —Å–æ—Å—Ä–µ–¥–æ—Ç–∞—á–∏–≤–∞—é—Ç—Å—è –Ω–∞ —Ç–æ–º, —á—Ç–æ –ª—é–¥–∏ –≤–∏–¥—è—Ç, –∫–æ–≥–¥–∞ —Å–∞–¥—è—Ç—Å—è –≤–∑–∞–∏–º–æ–¥–µ–π—Å—Ç–≤–æ–≤–∞—Ç—å —Å –≤–µ–±-—Å–∞–π—Ç–æ–º. –û–Ω–∏ —Å–æ—Å—Ä–µ–¥–æ—Ç–æ—á–µ–Ω—ã –Ω–∞ –º–∞–∫–µ—Ç–µ —Å–∞–π—Ç–∞, —É–¥–æ–±—Å—Ç–≤–µ –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑–æ–≤–∞–Ω–∏—è –∏ –±—ã—Å—Ç—Ä–æ–¥–µ–π—Å—Ç–≤–∏–∏. –û–Ω–∏ –º–æ–≥–ª–∏ —Å–æ—Å—Ä–µ–¥–æ—Ç–æ—á–∏—Ç—å—Å—è –Ω–∞ —á–µ–º —É–≥–æ–¥–Ω–æ, –æ—Ç —Ä–µ–≥–∏—Å—Ç—Ä–∞—Ü–∏–∏ –¥–æ–º–µ–Ω–Ω–æ–≥–æ –∏–º–µ–Ω–∏ –¥–æ –≤–æ—Å–ø—Ä–æ–∏–∑–≤–µ–¥–µ–Ω–∏—è –∞–Ω–∏–º–∞—Ü–∏–∏ –≤—Å—è–∫–∏–π —Ä–∞–∑, –∫–æ–≥–¥–∞ –ø–æ–ª—å–∑–æ–≤–∞—Ç–µ–ª—å –¥–æ—Å—Ç–∏–≥–∞–µ—Ç –æ–ø—Ä–µ–¥–µ–ª–µ–Ω–Ω–æ–π —Ç–æ—á–∫–∏ –Ω–∞ —Å—Ç—Ä–∞–Ω–∏—Ü–µ. & Nbsp;

–ß—Ç–æ —Ç–∞–∫–æ–µ —Å–µ—Ä–≤–µ—Ä–Ω—ã–π —Ä–∞–∑—Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç—á–∏–∫?

Backend-—Ä–∞–∑—Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç—á–∏–∫–∏ , —Å –¥—Ä—É–≥–æ–π —Å—Ç–æ—Ä–æ–Ω—ã, —Å–æ—Å—Ä–µ–¥–æ—Ç–æ—á—å—Ç–µ—Å—å –Ω–∞ —Ç–æ–º, —á–µ–≥–æ –ª—é–¥–∏ –Ω–µ –≤–∏–¥—è—Ç –ø—Ä–∏ –≤–∑–∞–∏–º–æ–¥–µ–π—Å—Ç–≤–∏–∏ —Å –≤–µ–±-—Å–∞–π—Ç–æ–º. –û–Ω–∏ –æ–ø—Ä–µ–¥–µ–ª—è—é—Ç, –Ω–∞—Å–∫–æ–ª—å–∫–æ —Ö–æ—Ä–æ—à–æ –∏ –Ω–∞—Å–∫–æ–ª—å–∫–æ –±—ã—Å—Ç—Ä–æ —Å–∞–π—Ç –º–æ–∂–µ—Ç —á–∏—Ç–∞—Ç—å –∏ –ø–∏—Å–∞—Ç—å –≤ –±–∞–∑—É –¥–∞–Ω–Ω—ã—Ö, –Ω–∞–ø—Ä–∏–º–µ—Ä. & Nbsp;

–ì–¥–µ –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑—É–µ—Ç—Å—è JavaScript? & nbsp;

JavaScript –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑—É–µ—Ç—Å—è –ø–µ—Ä–µ—Å–µ—á—å —Å—Ç–µ–∫ –≤–µ–±-—Ä–∞–∑—Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∫–∏. –≠—Ç–æ –ø—Ä–∞–≤–∏–ª—å–Ω–æ: —ç—Ç–æ –∏ –∏–Ω—Ç–µ—Ä—Ñ–µ–π—Å , –∏ –±—ç–∫—ç–Ω–¥. & Nbsp;

–Ø –∑–Ω–∞—é, —è –∑–Ω–∞—é; –Ω–∞–π–¥–∏—Ç–µ –º–∏–Ω—É—Ç–∫—É, —á—Ç–æ–±—ã –¥–∞—Ç—å —ç—Ç–æ–º—É –ø–æ–Ω—è—Ç—å. & nbsp;

JavaScript –¥–ª—è –∏–Ω—Ç–µ—Ä—Ñ–µ–π—Å–Ω–æ–π —Ä–∞–∑—Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∫–∏

–í–Ω–µ—à–Ω–∏–µ —Ä–∞–∑—Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç—á–∏–∫–∏ –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑—É—é—Ç JavaScript –¥–ª—è —Å–æ–∑–¥–∞–Ω–∏—è –¥–∏–Ω–∞–º–∏—á–µ—Å–∫–∏—Ö –≤–µ–±-—Å—Ç—Ä–∞–Ω–∏—Ü. JavaScript - –æ—Ç–ª–∏—á–Ω—ã–π –∏–Ω—Å—Ç—Ä—É–º–µ–Ω—Ç –¥–ª—è —Ç–∞–∫–∏—Ö –∑–∞–¥–∞—á, –∫–∞–∫ –ø—Ä–æ–≤–µ—Ä–∫–∞ —Ñ–æ—Ä–º –æ—Ç–ø—Ä–∞–≤–∫–∏ –∏–ª–∏ –æ–±–Ω–æ–≤–ª–µ–Ω–∏–µ –æ–ø—Ä–µ–¥–µ–ª–µ–Ω–Ω—ã—Ö —á–∞—Å—Ç–µ–π —Å–æ–¥–µ—Ä–∂–∏–º–æ–≥–æ —Å—Ç—Ä–∞–Ω–∏—Ü—ã –±–µ–∑ –æ–¥–Ω–æ–≤—Ä–µ–º–µ–Ω–Ω–æ–≥–æ –æ–±–Ω–æ–≤–ª–µ–Ω–∏—è –≤—Å–µ–π —Å—Ç—Ä–∞–Ω–∏—Ü—ã. & Nbsp;

–ë–µ–∑ JavaScript –ò–Ω—Ç–µ—Ä–Ω–µ—Ç –±—ã–ª –±—ã –∑–∞–ø–æ–ª–Ω–µ–Ω –≤–µ–±-—Å—Ç—Ä–∞–Ω–∏—Ü–∞–º–∏, –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä—ã–µ –ø—Ä–æ—Å—Ç–æ —Å–∏–¥—è—Ç –∏ –æ—Ç–æ–±—Ä–∞–∂–∞—é—Ç —Ç–µ–∫—Å—Ç. & nbsp;

81% —É—á–∞—Å—Ç–Ω–∏–∫–æ–≤ –∑–∞—è–≤–∏–ª–∏, —á—Ç–æ –æ–Ω–∏ –ø–æ—á—É–≤—Å—Ç–≤–æ–≤–∞–ª–∏ —Å–µ–±—è –±–æ–ª–µ–µ —É–≤–µ—Ä–µ–Ω–Ω—ã–º–∏ –≤ —Å–≤–æ–∏—Ö –ø–µ—Ä—Å–ø–µ–∫—Ç–∏–≤–∞—Ö —Ç—Ä—É–¥–æ—É—Å—Ç—Ä–æ–π—Å—Ç–≤–∞ –≤ —Å—Ñ–µ—Ä–µ –≤—ã—Å–æ–∫–∏—Ö —Ç–µ—Ö–Ω–æ–ª–æ–≥–∏–π –ø–æ—Å–ª–µ –ø–æ—Å–µ—â–µ–Ω–∏—è —É—á–µ–±–Ω–æ–≥–æ –ª–∞–≥–µ—Ä—è. –ü—Ä–æ–π–¥–∏—Ç–µ —É—á–µ–±–Ω—ã–π –∫—É—Ä—Å —É–∂–µ —Å–µ–≥–æ–¥–Ω—è.

–°—Ä–µ–¥–Ω–∏–π –≤—ã–ø—É—Å–∫–Ω–∏–∫ —É—á–µ–±–Ω–æ–≥–æ –ª–∞–≥–µ—Ä—è –ø–æ—Ç—Ä–∞—Ç–∏–ª –º–µ–Ω–µ–µ —à–µ—Å—Ç–∏ –º–µ—Å—è—Ü–µ–≤ –Ω–∞ –ø–µ—Ä–µ—Ö–æ–¥–Ω—É—é –∫–∞—Ä—å–µ—Ä—É, –æ—Ç –Ω–∞—á–∞–ª–∞ —É—á–µ–±–Ω–æ–≥–æ –ª–∞–≥–µ—Ä—è –¥–æ –ø–æ–∏—Å–∫–∞ —Å–≤–æ–µ–π –ø–µ—Ä–≤–æ–π —Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç—ã.

Backend-—Ä–∞–∑—Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç—á–∏–∫–∏ –∏—Å–ø–æ–ª—å–∑—É—é—Ç —Ç–∏–ø JavaScript –Ω–∞–∑—ã–≤–∞–µ—Ç—Å—è Node.js –¥–ª—è –≤–Ω—É—Ç—Ä–µ–Ω–Ω–µ–π —Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç—ã. –ü–ª–∞—Ç—Ñ–æ—Ä–º–∞ Node.js –ø–æ–∑–≤–æ–ª—è–µ—Ç —Ä–∞–∑—Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç—á–∏–∫—É –æ–±—Ä–∞–±–∞—Ç—ã–≤–∞—Ç—å –æ–±–Ω–æ–≤–ª–µ–Ω–∏—è –¥–∞–Ω–Ω—ã—Ö –∏–∑ –≤–Ω–µ—à–Ω–µ–≥–æ –∏–Ω—Ç–µ—Ä—Ñ–µ–π—Å–∞ –∏ —Å–æ–∑–¥–∞–≤–∞—Ç—å –º–∞—Å—à—Ç–∞–±–∏—Ä—É–µ–º—ã–µ —Å–µ—Ç–µ–≤—ã–µ –ø—Ä–∏–ª–æ–∂–µ–Ω–∏—è, —Å–ø–æ—Å–æ–±–Ω—ã–µ, —Å—Ä–µ–¥–∏ –ø—Ä–æ—á–µ–≥–æ, –æ–±—Ä–∞–±–∞—Ç—ã–≤–∞—Ç—å –º–Ω–æ–∂–µ—Å—Ç–≤–æ –æ–¥–Ω–æ–≤—Ä–µ–º–µ–Ω–Ω—ã—Ö –ø–æ–ª—å–∑–æ–≤–∞—Ç–µ–ª—å—Å–∫–∏—Ö –∑–∞–ø—Ä–æ—Å–æ–≤. & Nbsp;

–í—Å–µ —ç—Ç–æ –æ–∑–Ω–∞—á–∞–µ—Ç, —á—Ç–æ JavaScript - —ç—Ç–æ –≤–∞–∂–Ω—ã–π —è–∑—ã–∫ –ø—Ä–æ–≥—Ä–∞–º–º–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞–Ω–∏—è, –∫–æ—Ç–æ—Ä—ã–π –Ω—É–∂–Ω–æ –¥–æ–±–∞–≤–∏—Ç—å –≤ –∏–Ω—Å—Ç—Ä—É–º–µ–Ω—Ç–∞—Ä–∏–π –≤–∞—à–µ–≥–æ –≤–µ–±-—Ä–∞–∑—Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç—á–∏–∫–∞, –Ω–µ–∑–∞–≤–∏—Å–∏–º–æ –æ—Ç —Ç–æ–≥–æ, –ø–ª–∞–Ω–∏—Ä—É–µ—Ç–µ –ª–∏ –≤—ã —Å–ø–µ—Ü–∏–∞–ª–∏–∑–∏—Ä–æ–≤–∞—Ç—å—Å—è –Ω–∞ —Ä–∞–∑—Ä–∞–±–æ—Ç–∫–µ –≤–Ω–µ—à–Ω–µ–≥–æ –∏–Ω—Ç–µ—Ä—Ñ–µ–π—Å–∞, —Å–µ—Ä–≤–µ—Ä–Ω–æ–π —á–∞—Å—Ç–∏ –∏–ª–∏ –ø–æ–ª–Ω–æ–≥–æ —Å—Ç–µ–∫–∞.

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