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Attributes are values ‚Äã‚Äãor functions associated with an object, data type, or class. If you call an attribute on a value whose data type or class does not support that attribute, you will encounter an AttributeError.
This guide explains what an AttributeError is and what it means. We’ll take a look at an example Python attribute error so that you can learn how to fix one in your code.
What is a Python attribute error ?
A Python attribute error is generated when you try to call an attribute of an object whose type does not support this method. For example, trying to use the Python append () method on a string returns an AttributeError because strings do not do not support append ().
In a Python class , you can define methods and values ‚Äã‚Äãshared by objects of that class. This is why some people think of classes as projects for objects.
Calling a method or a class is another way of saying that you are referring to an attribute of that class. One way to think of an attribute is like a physical attribute of a person. Some people have blue eyes. Some people have their hair dyed pink. These are all attributes.
In a Python class, an attribute can be "eye_color". This attribute could define the color of a person’s eyes. An attribute can also be a function. A function called changeEyeColor () could change the value of "eye_color".
Data types have attributes. For example, you can use the Python join () method to convert a string to a list. String objects support the join () method.
If you try to reference a function or value not associated with a class object or data type, you will encounter an AttributeError.
Example of Python attribute error
Let’s write a program that combines two shoe lists. Two shoe stores are merging and want to compile a list of all the unique shoes they sell.
To start, let’s define a Python set that contains the shoes from the first store, Harrisons Shoes:
We use suspenders to define our set. Then we define a set with the names of the shoes offered by the store that merges with Harrisons. This shoe store is called Shoe Emporium:
Since these two collections are collections, they can only store unique values. This means that when we add them we will get a set with no duplicate values.
To add our sets, we’ll use the built-in function called extend ():
The extend () adds all shoes in the "shoe_emporium" set to the "harrisons_shoes" set . We use a print () statement. This allows us to see all the shoes in our new set. Let’s run our code and see what happens:
Our code returns a AttributeError.
Our error message tells us that we cannot use the extend () method on an object whose data type is a collection. This is because extend () is a list method. It is not supported by sets.
If we want to merge our two sets, we have to use a plus sign:
This will add the contents of the "shoe_emporium" set to the "harrisons_shoes" set . Then we print all the values ‚Äã‚Äãin the " harrisons_shoes " folder defined on the console. Let’s run our new program:
Our program returns a set with all the shoes from our two original sets. While there were six values ‚Äã‚Äãin our original two sets, there are now only five. This is because two shoes were identical and sets can only store unique values.
Our pr ogram returns one set with all shoes from our two original sets. While there were six values ‚Äã‚Äãin our original two sets, there are now only five. This is because two of the shoes were the same and the sets can only store unique values.
Similar attribute errors to explore
Attribute errors are incredibly common. They can occur when you try to call attributes of data types and classes that do so. does not support the attribute you are referring to.
These errors can also be caused if you make a typo while referencing an attribute. Python will interpret your code as is. If you make a typo, it will appear in Python that you are referring to an attribute that does not exist.
For example, using Python split () to split a li st It is common. But split () is a string method and therefore cannot be used to split a list.
For further reading, be sure to check for the following errors:
Errors attributes in Python are generated when referencing an invalid attribute. To resolve these errors, first verify that the attribute you are calling exists. Next, make sure the attribute is related to the object or data type you are working with.
If the attribute you want is associated with a built-in type and does not exist, you should look for an alternative. There are alternatives for many existing attributes for one data type that can be used on another data type. For example, there is no extend () method with sets, but you can use union () to merge sets.