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One of the most popular types of programming languages ‚Äã‚Äãis OOP, which is object-oriented programming. Much of the world operates on this paradigm. And if you’re just starting your tech career, you can expect to know the answers to some OOP interview questions.
To get started, let’s try to understand what object-oriented programming languages ‚Äã‚Äãare, and then we’ll look at some of the most common OOP interview questions.
What is OOP ?
OOP stands for Object Oriented Programming and is a type of programming paradigm. Object oriented languages ‚Äã‚Äãfocus on objects rather than logic alone. Objects can contain both data and code, and in many object-oriented programming languages ‚Äã‚Äãalmost everything is an object.
These objects can interact with each other and with themselves. It is the counterpart of the other main branch of programming: functional programming. In the functional programming languages ‚Äã‚Äã, the emphasis is on the flow of information and has immutable variables.
OOP Interview Questions
Now that we have some information on what object-oriented programming is, let’s finally move on to the list of questions for ’POO interview.
Name some object oriented programming languages.
Here are some object oriented programming languages ‚Äã‚Äã:
What are the pillars of OOP theory?
The four fundamental concepts are:
What is abstraction?
With data abstraction, you can extract a small amount of relevant data from a larger amount of data. This allows you to show and use only important information and hide some implementation details.
What is encapsulation?
Encapsulation refers to the idea that it is possible to group data with code and is a central tenet of object-oriented languages. It also allows you to hide data so that only the object containing secure information can access that protected information.
What is inheritance?
Inheritance is exactly what it sounds like. Allows objects and classes to copy data and functions from other parent classes. And it can serve as a template for objects and classes.
What is polymorphism?
Polymorphism is the idea that something can appear in many forms. For object-oriented languages, this means that once designed, a code instance can be used multiple times in multiple situations.
What is an object?
Objects are collections of data and code and function very similar to real world objects. They can have both properties (such as color, size, or weight) and function (such as stapling, warming, or typing).
What is a class ?
A class is an object that serves as a model for several objects, provides the base definition and building blocks for the objects created with it, and is one of the parts that allow inheritance. For example ’soda’ or ’computer’ could be classes, while & ls quo; Fanta ’ and’ Thinkpad ’ could be objects under these classes.
What is a superclass?
A superclass (also called a base class) is a parent class of several classes rather than objects. It usually contains the base code and data that each underlying class and object will use. Using the example above, ’drink’ and ’machine’ could be superclasses for ’soda’ and ’computer’.
What is a subclass ?
A subclass is a class that falls into a superclass. It inherits the superclass and is considered to have a relationship "is-a" with the superclass.
Access modifiers affect the scope of a method or variable and change what is allowed to see and modify those methods and variables. They include:
- Protected friend
What is a sealed modifier ?
Sealed modifiers are access modifiers that cannot be inherited. Sealed modifiers can also be applied to properties, events, and methods.
What is a constructor ?
A: A constructor is a method used to create objects or classes and initialize their state as needed. It is called when the object is created.
What is a copy constructor ?
A copy constructor is a special method that creates an object which is a copy of an object.
What is a parametric constructor ?
This is a constructor that passes certain defined parameters to the new object or class. ;
What is a destructor?
A destructor is a method called when an object is destroyed.
What is an inline function?
An inline function allows the compiler to insert the entire function wherever it is used in uncompiled code.
What is a friend function?
A friend function is a function that allows access to public, private and secure information in the class with which "friend". This function must be defined in the above class.
What is operator overload?
Operator overload adds additional functionality for specific class operators. This allows you to use the same operator in different cases and perform different functions.
What is function overload ?
Function overloading is very similar to operator overloading. This means creating a function that can be used in different situations and can have different parameters depending on where it is used.
List operators that cannot be overloaded
The following cannot be overloaded:
- Perimeter resolution (represented by ’::’)
- Member selection (represented by ’.’)
- Selection number of members via a function pointer (represented by ’. *’)
What is an abstract class?
An abstract class is a special type of class that contains one or more abstract methods and cannot create instances. Abstract classes cannot create objects, but they do allow inheritance.
What is an interface?
An interface is a set of one or more abstract methods.
What is the difference between a structure and a class?
A structure is used to group data and is public by default. Classes group both data and methods and are private. Classes are also used for inheritance and encapsulation, while structures are not.
What is a ternary operator?
A ternary operator is an operator that takes three arguments instead of two.
What is the finalize method?
The finalize method is used for cleanup operations at the end of code and saves memory by cleaning up unused resources. It is protected and accessible only through this class or a subclass.
What is exception handling ?
Exceptions are events that occur during program execution. These events can be errors, runtime exceptions, keyword throw and catch etc.
What is early binding ?
L Binding Anticipation occurs when values ‚Äã‚Äãare assigned to variables before the program is compiled and executed: directly in code.
What is late binding ? < / h4>
Late binding occurs when values ‚Äã‚Äãare assigned to variables after program compilation: during or during execution.
What is static binding ?
Static binding occurs when the type of a variable is determined by the co pilation time . These are usually variables defined explicitly in the code
What is dynamic binding ? Strong>
This is when the type of a variable is determined at run time. This is usually done implicitly.
What is a pointer?
A pointer is a memory address that contains the exact location of the actual value in computer memory.
What is the keyword ’this’ for ?
’This’ refers to the current class or object, as opposed to a class or global object.
What is a virtual function?
A virtual function is a member of its class and can be overloaded in derived classes.
What is the keyword ’super’ for ?
This is a special keyword that allows access to methods that have been overwritten.
What are tokens?
Tokens are instructions recognized by the compiler which cannot be broken down under any circumstances. Some examples of tokens are keywords, constants, identifiers, literal strings, and operators.
This, of course, is not a complete list of OOP interview questions. And a good working knowledge is always necessary to get started in any field using object oriented programming languages. These are just a few questions to jog your memory and prepare you for some tough questions potential employers might ask you.
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How can I make a time delay in Python?
I would like to know how to put a time delay in a Python script.
time.sleep(5) # Delays for 5 seconds. You can also use a float value.
Here is another example where something is run approximately once a minute:
print("This prints once a minute.")
time.sleep(60) # Delay for 1 minute (60 seconds).
How to delete a file or folder in Python?
How do I delete a file or folder in Python?
Path objects from the Python 3.4+
pathlib module also expose these instance methods: