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Object-oriented programming languages ‚Äã‚Äãuse objects that contain both data and code. The principles of object-oriented programming are encapsulation, abstraction, polymorphism, and inheritance.
Object Oriented Programming (OOP) languages ‚Äã‚Äãare everywhere we look. Most of the most widely used programming languages ‚Äã‚Äãthat make up today’s computing world are object oriented. In fact, many computer programs and much of the content on the Web are based on object-oriented languages . Understanding how object-oriented languages ‚Äã‚Äãwork and why they are useful is important for almost any career in IT.
In this article, we’ll take a look at what object-oriented languages ‚Äã‚Äãare and examine their pros and cons. We’ll also take a look at a list of some of the more popular OOP languages ‚Äã‚Äãin use today.
What is a programming language ?
A programming language is a set and the rules and procedures that allow programmers to give computers a set of instructions to execute. Each programming language has its own syntax, which, once learned, helps a computer know what tasks it needs to perform.
Think of it this way. English is a language that allows you to communicate with English speakers. When you know the basic rules of English, you can talk to anyone else who understands them. But computers cannot understand English or any other "traditional" language .
What are language objects oriented programming?
Computers are powerful machines. With a computer, we can calculate numbers extremely quickly and are able to produce amazing programs for many applications. However, to harness this power we have to communicate with the computer is something less painful than manually typing ones and zeros.
Therefore, we have programming languages, which are supported by machine code that has already been written. However, the further we move away from machine code, the more abstract and specialized languages ‚Äã‚Äãbecome in data management. This is why we have so many languages; no language is perfect and they all have different and overlapping applications.
In this regard, programming languages ‚Äã‚Äãare often separated from their programming paradigm. A programming paradigm is a way of looking at and accessing data. The two main paradigms are object oriented and Functional , although there are many more (including some which are the principles behind the above).
Object-oriented programming is built around objects, which are data structures that at the same time contain both data (properties or attributes) and code (procedures or methods). Objects are able to change with ’this’ or ’self.’ In most OOP languages, almost everything is an object that can have both values ‚Äã‚Äãand executable code. Each object is unique, and although it can be a copy of another object, its variables may be different from the variables of any other object.
Objects in object-oriented software design can be thought of as real objects. Think of an object, such as a watch. This watch has properties. It is metal, it is black, it has density. But this object also does things. It shows the time and can even influence itself by turning gears to change the position of its hands.
Another characteristic of objects is that we don’t always need to know how the clock works to make it work. Assuming the clock is well built, it will tell the time reliably, without us having to interfere with its internal workings.
Object oriented languages ‚Äã‚Äãhave objects similar to real world objects. They can have properties and functions. They also tend to follow a certain set of principles.
Principles object oriented programming
Object oriented languages ‚Äã‚Äãhave four principles. These four principles are common properties that define them and make them significantly more effective. Some call them the Four Pillars of Object Oriented Programming.
The four pillars of object-oriented programming are:
The Four Principles
Let’s explore these four principles in more depth.
Java, Python, C ++, Lisp, and Perl are all examples of popular object-oriented programming languages. They support programming using the class and object paradigm.
Five of the most popular object-oriented languages ‚Äã‚Äãinclude:
- C ++
- C #
- Java - Java is everywhere and is one of the most used and requested languages ‚Äã‚Äãof all time. The motto of Java’s "write once, run everywhere" and this is reflected in the number of platforms on which it runs and is used.
- Python - Python is generic and used in many places. However, Python has a solid foundation in machine learning and data science. It is a preferred language for this new and constantly evolving field.
- C ++ - C ++ has the speed of C with class functionality and an object-oriented paradigm. It is a compiled, reliable and powerful language. In fact, it is even used to create compilers and interpreters for other languages.
- Ruby - Ruby is another generic programming language. It was built for simplicity. That said, Ruby is an incredibly powerful language. Ruby creator Yukihiro "Matz‚" Matsumoto said, "Ruby looks very simple, but it’s very complex on the inside, just like our human body.
- C # - C # is a language program designed by Microsoft. It is designed to enhance existing concepts in C. C # powers the Microsoft .NET framework as well as many web applications, games, desktop applications, and mobile applications.
Advantages and disadvantages of object oriented programming languages ‚Äã‚Äã
Although OOP languages ‚Äã‚Äãcan be powerful, i They are not useful for all situations and come with a baggage that must be taken into account.
Object oriented code is extremely modular in design. Due to polymorphism and abstraction, you can create a function that can be used over and over again. You can also copy information and features that have already been written with inheritance. This saves time, reduces complexity, saves space, and simplifies coding operations.
There is sufficient basis for parts of the program to be developed separately from each other and continue to operate according to oriented principles object. This makes concurrent development much easier for large development teams.
Since most, if not all, of our code is in one place, called and reused, this code is much easier to keep. Instead of having to individually fix a hundred different instances where a function is called, we can fix just the modular and polymorphic function.
While most languages ‚Äã‚Äãhave some security, object-oriented languages ‚Äã‚Äãare convenient because security is built into the encapsulation. Other methods and classes cannot access private data by default, and programs written in OOP languages ‚Äã‚Äãare safer for this.
Object oriented programming languages ‚Äã‚Äãdivide an application into objects and classes. This is advantageous because it gives your application a more modular structure. The modular code is easier to read. Therefore , it is easier to maintain.
Because object-oriented languages ‚Äã‚Äãare so customizable and scalable that ’It can be easy to lose your understanding of how code works. The OOP code can work in several ways. There are many OOP programming methodologies that do not work well with other methodologies, are inefficient, or difficult to use.
Requires more planning
As these languages ‚Äã‚Äãare so modular and scalable that entering without a clear plan in advance is a recipe for a desaster. Creating an effective program requires a solid plan, more so than with other programming paradigms.
This is as much an advantage as a disadvantage. Objects and functions can operate independently. They can receive information and (usually) return reliable results. As a result, they can end up being black boxes, which means what they’re doing isn’t always obvious. Although the programmer has probably created this object and knows what he is doing, OOP languages ‚Äã‚Äãare just not transparent like other languages.
Language-oriented objects often take a severe hit. Programs built in OOP languages ‚Äã‚Äãare often larger and require more computational effort to run than functional languages. However, this is not always true or important. C ++ is an OOP language, but it is one of the fastest languages ‚Äã‚Äãavailable. Likewise, speed is not always important. The difference in speed only becomes noticeable when processing huge or complex calculations or in cases where extreme speed is required.
You now have a solid understanding of what an object-oriented language is, what it is used for, and which are the most popular. Programming in these languages ‚Äã‚Äãcan be as fun as it is profitable, and your development career is just steps away.
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How can I make a time delay in Python?
I would like to know how to put a time delay in a Python script.
time.sleep(5) # Delays for 5 seconds. You can also use a float value.
Here is another example where something is run approximately once a minute:
print("This prints once a minute.")
time.sleep(60) # Delay for 1 minute (60 seconds).
How to delete a file or folder in Python?
How do I delete a file or folder in Python?
Path objects from the Python 3.4+
pathlib module also expose these instance methods:
Want to excel in Python? See our review of the best Python online courses 2023. If you are interested in Data Science, check also how to learn programming in R.
By the way, this material is also available in other languages:
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