# numpy.pv () in Python

|

Parameters :

rate: [array_like] Rate of interest as decimal (not per cent) per period
nper: [array_like] total compounding periods
pmt: [array_like] fixed payment
fv: [array_like, optional ] future value. Default = 0.0
when: at the beginning (when = {’begin’, 1}) or the end (when = {’end’, 0}) of each period. Default is {’end’, 0}

Return:

` present value as per given parameters. `

Solving the equation:

` fv + pv * (1 + rate) ** nper + pmt * (1 + rate * when) / rate * ( (1 + rate) ** nper - 1) = 0 `

or when rate == 0

` fv + pv + pmt * nper = 0 `

Code 1: Working

 ` ## Python program explaining the pv () function `   ` import ` ` numpy as np ` ` "" "` ` Question: `   ` What is the current value (eg initial investment) ` ` investment that should be \$ 15692.93 after 10 ` ` years of saving \$ 100 each month? ` ` Pre Let’s assume the interest rate is 5% (per annum) monthly. ` ` "" "` ` `  ` # evaluate np pmt fv ` ` Solution ` ` = ` ` np.pv (` ` 0.05 ` ` / ` ` 12 ` `, ` ` 10 ` ` * ` ` 12 ` `, ` ` - ` ` 100 ` `, ` ` 15692.93 ` `) `   ` print ` ` (` ` "present value (fv):" ` `, Solution) `

Output:

` p resent value (fv): -100.000671316 `

https://docs.scipy.org/doc/numpy-1.13.0/reference/generated/numpy.pv.html

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