Multidimensional associative array in PHP

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Creation:we can create a multidimensional associative array by mapping an array containing a set of key and value pairs to the parent key.
The following program demonstrates how to create a multidimensional associative array: $languages ‚Äã‚Äã = array (); $languages ‚Äã‚Äã [ ’ Python’ ] = array ( "first_release" = > "1991" , "latest_release" = > " 3.8.0 " , " designed_by " = > " Guido van Rossum " , "description" = > array ( " extension " = > ". py" , "typing_discipline" = > "Duck, dynamic, gradual" , " license " = > "Python Software Foundation License" ) ); $languages ‚Äã‚Äã [ ’ PHP’ ] = array ( "first_release" = > "1995" , "latest_release" = > " 7.3.11 " , " designed_by " = > " Rasmus Lerdorf " , "description" = > array ( "extension" = > ". php" , "typing_discipline" = > "Dynamic, weak" , "license" = > "PHP License (most of Zend engine under Zend Engine License)" ) ); print_r ( $languages ‚Äã‚Äã );
?>
Exit:
 Array ([ Python] = > Array ([first_release] = > 1991 [latest_release] = > 3.8.0 [designed_by] = > Guido van Rossum [description] = > Array ([extension] = > .py [typing_discipline ] = > Duck, dynamic, gradual [license] = > Python Software Foundation License)) [PHP] = > Array ([first_release] = > 1995 [latest_release] = > 7.3.11 [designed_by] = > Rasmus Lerdorf [description] = > Array ([extension] = > .php [typing_discipline] = > Dynamic, weak [license] = > PHP License (most of Zend engine under Zend Engine License)))) 
Explanation:In the above program, the parent index is Python and PHP. The parent key is associated with an array of constant value keysets. The last key, that is, the description of each parent key, was associated with another array of a set of keys and constant values. Here Python and PHP are the parent key for first_release, latest_release, design_by and description, while description is the parent key for extension, typing_discipline and license.Extracting values:we can get the value multidimensional array using the following method:
  • Key Usage:We can use the associative array key to get the data value directly. Example: $languages ‚Äã‚Äã = array (); $languages ‚Äã‚Äã [ ’ Python’ ] = array ( "first_release" = > "1991" , "latest_release" = > " 3.8.0 " , " designed_by " = > " Guido van Rossum " , "description" = > array ( " extension " = > ". py" , "typing_discipline" = > "Duck, dynamic, gradual" , " license " = > "Python Software Foundation License" ) ); print_r ( $languages ‚Äã‚Äã [ ’ Python’ ] [ ’description’ ]); echo $languages ‚Äã‚Äã [ ’Python’ ] [ ’ latest_release’ ];
    ?>
    Exit:
     Array ([ extension] = > .py [typing_discipline] = > Duck, dynamic, gradual [license] = > Python Software Foundation License) 3.8.0 
  • Using a foreach loop:we can use a foreach loop to retrieve the value of each key associated within a multidimensional associative array.
    Example : $languages ‚Äã‚Äã = array (); $languages ‚Äã‚Äã [ ’ Python’ ] = array ( "first_release" = > "1991" , "latest_release" = > " 3.8.0 " , " designed_by " = > " Guido van Rossum " , "description" = > array ( " extension " = > ". py" , "typing_discipline" = > "Duck, dynamic, gradual" , " license " = > "Python Software Foundation License" ) ); foreach ( $languages ‚Äã‚Äã as $key = > $value ) { echo $key . "" ; foreach ( $value as $sub_key = > $sub_val ) { // if sub_val is an array, then again

    // iterate over each of its elements // otherwise just print the sub_key value // and sub_val if ( is_array ( $sub_v al )) { echo $sub_key . ":" ; foreach ( $sub_val as $k = > $v ) { echo "" . $k . "=" . $v . "" ; } } else { echo $sub_key . "=" . $sub_val . "" ; } } }
    ?>
    Exit:

     Python first_release = 1991 latest_release = 3.8.0 designed_by = Guido van Rossum description: extension = .py typing_discipline = Duck, dynamic, gradual license = Python Software Foundation License 
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    Multidimensional associative array in PHP exp: Questions

    exp

    How do I merge two dictionaries in a single expression (taking union of dictionaries)?

    5 answers

    Carl Meyer By Carl Meyer

    I have two Python dictionaries, and I want to write a single expression that returns these two dictionaries, merged (i.e. taking the union). The update() method would be what I need, if it returned its result instead of modifying a dictionary in-place.

    >>> x = {"a": 1, "b": 2}
    >>> y = {"b": 10, "c": 11}
    >>> z = x.update(y)
    >>> print(z)
    None
    >>> x
    {"a": 1, "b": 10, "c": 11}
    

    How can I get that final merged dictionary in z, not x?

    (To be extra-clear, the last-one-wins conflict-handling of dict.update() is what I"m looking for as well.)

    5839

    Answer #1

    How can I merge two Python dictionaries in a single expression?

    For dictionaries x and y, z becomes a shallowly-merged dictionary with values from y replacing those from x.

    • In Python 3.9.0 or greater (released 17 October 2020): PEP-584, discussed here, was implemented and provides the simplest method:

      z = x | y          # NOTE: 3.9+ ONLY
      
    • In Python 3.5 or greater:

      z = {**x, **y}
      
    • In Python 2, (or 3.4 or lower) write a function:

      def merge_two_dicts(x, y):
          z = x.copy()   # start with keys and values of x
          z.update(y)    # modifies z with keys and values of y
          return z
      

      and now:

      z = merge_two_dicts(x, y)
      

    Explanation

    Say you have two dictionaries and you want to merge them into a new dictionary without altering the original dictionaries:

    x = {"a": 1, "b": 2}
    y = {"b": 3, "c": 4}
    

    The desired result is to get a new dictionary (z) with the values merged, and the second dictionary"s values overwriting those from the first.

    >>> z
    {"a": 1, "b": 3, "c": 4}
    

    A new syntax for this, proposed in PEP 448 and available as of Python 3.5, is

    z = {**x, **y}
    

    And it is indeed a single expression.

    Note that we can merge in with literal notation as well:

    z = {**x, "foo": 1, "bar": 2, **y}
    

    and now:

    >>> z
    {"a": 1, "b": 3, "foo": 1, "bar": 2, "c": 4}
    

    It is now showing as implemented in the release schedule for 3.5, PEP 478, and it has now made its way into the What"s New in Python 3.5 document.

    However, since many organizations are still on Python 2, you may wish to do this in a backward-compatible way. The classically Pythonic way, available in Python 2 and Python 3.0-3.4, is to do this as a two-step process:

    z = x.copy()
    z.update(y) # which returns None since it mutates z
    

    In both approaches, y will come second and its values will replace x"s values, thus b will point to 3 in our final result.

    Not yet on Python 3.5, but want a single expression

    If you are not yet on Python 3.5 or need to write backward-compatible code, and you want this in a single expression, the most performant while the correct approach is to put it in a function:

    def merge_two_dicts(x, y):
        """Given two dictionaries, merge them into a new dict as a shallow copy."""
        z = x.copy()
        z.update(y)
        return z
    

    and then you have a single expression:

    z = merge_two_dicts(x, y)
    

    You can also make a function to merge an arbitrary number of dictionaries, from zero to a very large number:

    def merge_dicts(*dict_args):
        """
        Given any number of dictionaries, shallow copy and merge into a new dict,
        precedence goes to key-value pairs in latter dictionaries.
        """
        result = {}
        for dictionary in dict_args:
            result.update(dictionary)
        return result
    

    This function will work in Python 2 and 3 for all dictionaries. e.g. given dictionaries a to g:

    z = merge_dicts(a, b, c, d, e, f, g) 
    

    and key-value pairs in g will take precedence over dictionaries a to f, and so on.

    Critiques of Other Answers

    Don"t use what you see in the formerly accepted answer:

    z = dict(x.items() + y.items())
    

    In Python 2, you create two lists in memory for each dict, create a third list in memory with length equal to the length of the first two put together, and then discard all three lists to create the dict. In Python 3, this will fail because you"re adding two dict_items objects together, not two lists -

    >>> c = dict(a.items() + b.items())
    Traceback (most recent call last):
      File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
    TypeError: unsupported operand type(s) for +: "dict_items" and "dict_items"
    

    and you would have to explicitly create them as lists, e.g. z = dict(list(x.items()) + list(y.items())). This is a waste of resources and computation power.

    Similarly, taking the union of items() in Python 3 (viewitems() in Python 2.7) will also fail when values are unhashable objects (like lists, for example). Even if your values are hashable, since sets are semantically unordered, the behavior is undefined in regards to precedence. So don"t do this:

    >>> c = dict(a.items() | b.items())
    

    This example demonstrates what happens when values are unhashable:

    >>> x = {"a": []}
    >>> y = {"b": []}
    >>> dict(x.items() | y.items())
    Traceback (most recent call last):
      File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
    TypeError: unhashable type: "list"
    

    Here"s an example where y should have precedence, but instead the value from x is retained due to the arbitrary order of sets:

    >>> x = {"a": 2}
    >>> y = {"a": 1}
    >>> dict(x.items() | y.items())
    {"a": 2}
    

    Another hack you should not use:

    z = dict(x, **y)
    

    This uses the dict constructor and is very fast and memory-efficient (even slightly more so than our two-step process) but unless you know precisely what is happening here (that is, the second dict is being passed as keyword arguments to the dict constructor), it"s difficult to read, it"s not the intended usage, and so it is not Pythonic.

    Here"s an example of the usage being remediated in django.

    Dictionaries are intended to take hashable keys (e.g. frozensets or tuples), but this method fails in Python 3 when keys are not strings.

    >>> c = dict(a, **b)
    Traceback (most recent call last):
      File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
    TypeError: keyword arguments must be strings
    

    From the mailing list, Guido van Rossum, the creator of the language, wrote:

    I am fine with declaring dict({}, **{1:3}) illegal, since after all it is abuse of the ** mechanism.

    and

    Apparently dict(x, **y) is going around as "cool hack" for "call x.update(y) and return x". Personally, I find it more despicable than cool.

    It is my understanding (as well as the understanding of the creator of the language) that the intended usage for dict(**y) is for creating dictionaries for readability purposes, e.g.:

    dict(a=1, b=10, c=11)
    

    instead of

    {"a": 1, "b": 10, "c": 11}
    

    Response to comments

    Despite what Guido says, dict(x, **y) is in line with the dict specification, which btw. works for both Python 2 and 3. The fact that this only works for string keys is a direct consequence of how keyword parameters work and not a short-coming of dict. Nor is using the ** operator in this place an abuse of the mechanism, in fact, ** was designed precisely to pass dictionaries as keywords.

    Again, it doesn"t work for 3 when keys are not strings. The implicit calling contract is that namespaces take ordinary dictionaries, while users must only pass keyword arguments that are strings. All other callables enforced it. dict broke this consistency in Python 2:

    >>> foo(**{("a", "b"): None})
    Traceback (most recent call last):
      File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
    TypeError: foo() keywords must be strings
    >>> dict(**{("a", "b"): None})
    {("a", "b"): None}
    

    This inconsistency was bad given other implementations of Python (PyPy, Jython, IronPython). Thus it was fixed in Python 3, as this usage could be a breaking change.

    I submit to you that it is malicious incompetence to intentionally write code that only works in one version of a language or that only works given certain arbitrary constraints.

    More comments:

    dict(x.items() + y.items()) is still the most readable solution for Python 2. Readability counts.

    My response: merge_two_dicts(x, y) actually seems much clearer to me, if we"re actually concerned about readability. And it is not forward compatible, as Python 2 is increasingly deprecated.

    {**x, **y} does not seem to handle nested dictionaries. the contents of nested keys are simply overwritten, not merged [...] I ended up being burnt by these answers that do not merge recursively and I was surprised no one mentioned it. In my interpretation of the word "merging" these answers describe "updating one dict with another", and not merging.

    Yes. I must refer you back to the question, which is asking for a shallow merge of two dictionaries, with the first"s values being overwritten by the second"s - in a single expression.

    Assuming two dictionaries of dictionaries, one might recursively merge them in a single function, but you should be careful not to modify the dictionaries from either source, and the surest way to avoid that is to make a copy when assigning values. As keys must be hashable and are usually therefore immutable, it is pointless to copy them:

    from copy import deepcopy
    
    def dict_of_dicts_merge(x, y):
        z = {}
        overlapping_keys = x.keys() & y.keys()
        for key in overlapping_keys:
            z[key] = dict_of_dicts_merge(x[key], y[key])
        for key in x.keys() - overlapping_keys:
            z[key] = deepcopy(x[key])
        for key in y.keys() - overlapping_keys:
            z[key] = deepcopy(y[key])
        return z
    

    Usage:

    >>> x = {"a":{1:{}}, "b": {2:{}}}
    >>> y = {"b":{10:{}}, "c": {11:{}}}
    >>> dict_of_dicts_merge(x, y)
    {"b": {2: {}, 10: {}}, "a": {1: {}}, "c": {11: {}}}
    

    Coming up with contingencies for other value types is far beyond the scope of this question, so I will point you at my answer to the canonical question on a "Dictionaries of dictionaries merge".

    Less Performant But Correct Ad-hocs

    These approaches are less performant, but they will provide correct behavior. They will be much less performant than copy and update or the new unpacking because they iterate through each key-value pair at a higher level of abstraction, but they do respect the order of precedence (latter dictionaries have precedence)

    You can also chain the dictionaries manually inside a dict comprehension:

    {k: v for d in dicts for k, v in d.items()} # iteritems in Python 2.7
    

    or in Python 2.6 (and perhaps as early as 2.4 when generator expressions were introduced):

    dict((k, v) for d in dicts for k, v in d.items()) # iteritems in Python 2
    

    itertools.chain will chain the iterators over the key-value pairs in the correct order:

    from itertools import chain
    z = dict(chain(x.items(), y.items())) # iteritems in Python 2
    

    Performance Analysis

    I"m only going to do the performance analysis of the usages known to behave correctly. (Self-contained so you can copy and paste yourself.)

    from timeit import repeat
    from itertools import chain
    
    x = dict.fromkeys("abcdefg")
    y = dict.fromkeys("efghijk")
    
    def merge_two_dicts(x, y):
        z = x.copy()
        z.update(y)
        return z
    
    min(repeat(lambda: {**x, **y}))
    min(repeat(lambda: merge_two_dicts(x, y)))
    min(repeat(lambda: {k: v for d in (x, y) for k, v in d.items()}))
    min(repeat(lambda: dict(chain(x.items(), y.items()))))
    min(repeat(lambda: dict(item for d in (x, y) for item in d.items())))
    

    In Python 3.8.1, NixOS:

    >>> min(repeat(lambda: {**x, **y}))
    1.0804965235292912
    >>> min(repeat(lambda: merge_two_dicts(x, y)))
    1.636518670246005
    >>> min(repeat(lambda: {k: v for d in (x, y) for k, v in d.items()}))
    3.1779992282390594
    >>> min(repeat(lambda: dict(chain(x.items(), y.items()))))
    2.740647904574871
    >>> min(repeat(lambda: dict(item for d in (x, y) for item in d.items())))
    4.266070580109954
    
    $ uname -a
    Linux nixos 4.19.113 #1-NixOS SMP Wed Mar 25 07:06:15 UTC 2020 x86_64 GNU/Linux
    

    Resources on Dictionaries

    5839

    Answer #2

    In your case, what you can do is:

    z = dict(list(x.items()) + list(y.items()))
    

    This will, as you want it, put the final dict in z, and make the value for key b be properly overridden by the second (y) dict"s value:

    >>> x = {"a":1, "b": 2}
    >>> y = {"b":10, "c": 11}
    >>> z = dict(list(x.items()) + list(y.items()))
    >>> z
    {"a": 1, "c": 11, "b": 10}
    
    

    If you use Python 2, you can even remove the list() calls. To create z:

    >>> z = dict(x.items() + y.items())
    >>> z
    {"a": 1, "c": 11, "b": 10}
    

    If you use Python version 3.9.0a4 or greater, then you can directly use:

    x = {"a":1, "b": 2}
    y = {"b":10, "c": 11}
    z = x | y
    print(z)
    
    {"a": 1, "c": 11, "b": 10}
    

    5839

    Answer #3

    An alternative:

    z = x.copy()
    z.update(y)
    

    iat

    InsecurePlatformWarning: A true SSLContext object is not available. This prevents urllib3 from configuring SSL appropriately

    3 answers

    Tried to perform REST GET through python requests with the following code and I got error.

    Code snip:

    import requests
    header = {"Authorization": "Bearer..."}
    url = az_base_url + az_subscription_id + "/resourcegroups/Default-Networking/resources?" + az_api_version
    r = requests.get(url, headers=header)
    

    Error:

    /usr/local/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/requests/packages/urllib3/util/ssl_.py:79: 
              InsecurePlatformWarning: A true SSLContext object is not available. 
              This prevents urllib3 from configuring SSL appropriately and may cause certain SSL connections to fail. 
              For more information, see https://urllib3.readthedocs.org/en/latest/security.html#insecureplatformwarning.
      InsecurePlatformWarning
    

    My python version is 2.7.3. I tried to install urllib3 and requests[security] as some other thread suggests, I still got the same error.

    Wonder if anyone can provide some tips?

    334

    Answer #1

    The docs give a fair indicator of what"s required., however requests allow us to skip a few steps:

    You only need to install the security package extras (thanks @admdrew for pointing it out)

    $ pip install requests[security]
    

    or, install them directly:

    $ pip install pyopenssl ndg-httpsclient pyasn1
    

    Requests will then automatically inject pyopenssl into urllib3


    If you"re on ubuntu, you may run into trouble installing pyopenssl, you"ll need these dependencies:

    $ apt-get install libffi-dev libssl-dev
    

    iat

    Dynamic instantiation from string name of a class in dynamically imported module?

    3 answers

    In python, I have to instantiate certain class, knowing its name in a string, but this class "lives" in a dynamically imported module. An example follows:

    loader-class script:

    import sys
    class loader:
      def __init__(self, module_name, class_name): # both args are strings
        try:
          __import__(module_name)
          modul = sys.modules[module_name]
          instance = modul.class_name() # obviously this doesn"t works, here is my main problem!
        except ImportError:
           # manage import error
    

    some-dynamically-loaded-module script:

    class myName:
      # etc...
    

    I use this arrangement to make any dynamically-loaded-module to be used by the loader-class following certain predefined behaviours in the dyn-loaded-modules...

    222

    Answer #1

    You can use getattr

    getattr(module, class_name)
    

    to access the class. More complete code:

    module = __import__(module_name)
    class_ = getattr(module, class_name)
    instance = class_()
    

    As mentioned below, we may use importlib

    import importlib
    module = importlib.import_module(module_name)
    class_ = getattr(module, class_name)
    instance = class_()
    

    iat

    How to get all of the immediate subdirectories in Python

    3 answers

    I"m trying to write a simple Python script that will copy a index.tpl to index.html in all of the subdirectories (with a few exceptions).

    I"m getting bogged down by trying to get the list of subdirectories.

    184

    Answer #1

    import os
    def get_immediate_subdirectories(a_dir):
        return [name for name in os.listdir(a_dir)
                if os.path.isdir(os.path.join(a_dir, name))]
    

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