Spectral Clustering — it is a growing clustering algorithm that performs better than many traditional clustering algorithms in many cases. It treats each data point as a node in the graph and thus turns the clustering problem into a graph splitting problem. A typical implementation consists of three main stages:
 Building a similarity graph: at this stage builds a similarity graph in the form of an adjacency matrix, which is represented by A. ways: —
 Epsilonneighborhood graph: the epsilon parameter is fixed in advance. Then each point connects to all points that lie in its epsilon radius. If all the distances between any two points are the same on the scale, then, as a rule, the weights of the edges, i.e. the distance between two points is not saved as they do not provide any additional information. Thus, in this case, the constructed graph is an undirected and unweighted graph.
 Knearest neighbors The parameter k is fixed in advance. Then, for two vertices u and v, the edge is directed from u to v only if v is among the knearest neighbors of u. Note that this results in a weighted and directed graph, because it is not always the case that for every u having v as one of its knearest neighbors, it will be the same for v having u among its knearest neighbors neighbors. To make this graph nondirectional, one of the following approaches is used:
 A straight edge from U to V and from V to and, if either v is one of the Knearest neighbors and or is one of the knearest neighbors of st.
 A straight edge from and to V and from V to and, if v is one of the Knearest neighbors of both and and is one of Knearest neighbors st.
 Fully linked plot. To plot this plot, each point is associated with an undirected edge weighted by the distance between two points to any other point. Since this approach is used to model local neighborhood relationships, so it is common to use the Gaussian similarity metric to compute distance.
 Projecting data into a lower dimensional space. This step is done to account for the possibility that members of the same cluster may be far away in a given dimensional space. Thus, the dimensional space is reduced so that these points are closer in the reduced dimension space and thus can be grouped together using the traditional clustering algorithm. This is done by calculating the Laplace Graf matrix . To calculate this first, you need to determine the degree of the knot. The degree of the ith node is defined as
Note that this is the edge between nodes i and j as defined in the adjacency matrix above.
The degree matrix is defined as follows:
Thus, the Laplace Graf matrix is defined as:
This matrix is then normalized for mathematical efficiency. To reduce the size, the eigenvalues and the corresponding eigenvectors are first computed. If the number of clusters is k, then the first eigenvalues and their eigenvectors are taken and fit into the matrix in such a way that the eigenvectors are columns.
 Data clustering. This the process basically involves clustering the abbreviated data using any traditional clustering method — usually KMeans Clustering. First, each node is assigned a row of the normalized Laplace Graf matrix. This data is then grouped using any conventional technique. To transform the clustering result, the node ID is stored.
Properties :
 No assumptions: this clustering method, unlike other traditional methods , does not imply that the data matches some property. Thus, this makes this method the answer to a more general class of clustering problems.
 Ease of implementation and speed: This algorithm is easier to implement than other clustering algorithms and is also very fast. since it mainly consists of math calculations.
 Not scalable: because it involves matrix construction and computation of eigenvalues and eigenvectors, it takes a long time for dense datasets.
The following steps demonstrate how to implement spectral clustering using Sklearn. Data for the next steps — this is credit card data which can be downloaded from Kaggle .
Step 1: Import required libraries

Step 2: Load and clear data

Step 3: Preprocessing data to make the data rendered

Step 4. Post swarm clustering models and visualize clustering.
In the following steps, two different spectral clustering models with different affinity values. You can read about the documentation of the Spectral Clustering class here .
a ) affinity = & # 39; rbf & # 39;

# Create a label for color matching
colors
=
{}
colors [
0
]
=
’b’
colors [
1
]
=
’y’
# Build a color vector for each data point
cvec
=
[colors [label]
for
label
in < / code> labels_rbf]
# Building a cluster scatterplot
b
=
plt.scatter (X_principal [
’P1’
], X_principal [
’ P2’
], color
=
’b’
);
y
=
plt.scatter (X_principal [
’P1’
], X_principal [
’ P2’
], color
=
’y’
);
plt.figure (figsize
=
(
9
,
9
))
plt.scatter (X_principal [
’P1’
], X_principal [
’ P2’
], c
=
cvec)
plt.legend ((b, y), (
’Label 0’
,
’Label 1’
))
plt.show ()
b) similarity = & # 39; next_leagues & # 39;

Step 5: Performance Evaluation

Step 6: Compare performances
