# Fractal trees in Python

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Introduction A fractal tree is known as a tree that can be created by recursively symmetric branching.

A trunk of length 1 splits into two branches of length r, each of which forms an angle q with the direction of the barrel. Both of these branches are divided into two branches of length r * r, each of which makes an angle q with the direction of its parent branch. Continuing in this way an infinite number of branches, a tree is a collection of branches together with their limiting points, called branch tips.

Enough theory, now let’s try the implementation in Python. For this we need two Python libraries Pygame for the GUI or GUI and math, which is a built-in library in Python and will be used for math tweaks.

To install Pygame

` pip install pygame `

So how to proceed, it is highly recommended that you know a little about pygmies and fractals.

First create trunk, and then start creating branches for each trunk, assuming the branch size to be 0.9 * (stem length) and then treating the branches as a stem again, repeating the process.

 ` # Importing python libraries ` ` import ` ` pygame, math ` ` # Initialize cue all imported Pygame modules ` ` pygame.init () ` ` # Create a new surface and window. ` ` surface_height, surface_width ` ` = ` ` 800 ` `, ` ` 600 ` ` # Surface Variables ` ` main_surface ` ` = ` ` pygame.display.set_mode ((surface_height, surface_width)) ` ` ` ` # Window title ` ` pygame.display.set_caption (` ` "Fractal_Tree_pythonengineering" ` `) ` ` def ` ` draw_tree (order, theta, sz, pos n, heading, color ` ` = ` ` (` ` 0 ` `, ` ` 0 ` `, ` ` 0 ` `), depth ` ` = ` ` 0 ` `) : ` ` The relative ratio of the trunk to the entire tree ` ` ` ` trunk_ratio ` ` = ` ` 0.29 ` ` # Barrel length ` ` trunk ` ` = ` ` sz ` ` * ` ` trunk_rati o ` ` delta_x ` ` = ` ` trunk ` ` * ` ` math.cos (heading) ` ` delta_y ` ` = ` ` trunk ` ` * ` ` math.sin (heading) ` ` ` ` (u, v) ` ` = ` ` posn ` ` newpos ` ` = ` ` (u ` ` + ` ` delta_x, v ` ` + ` ` delta_y) ` ` pygame.draw.line (main_surface, color , posn, newpos) ` ` if ` ` order & gt; ` ` 0 ` `: ` ` # Draw another layer of subtrees ` ` # Next six lines - simple hack ` ` # the two main halves of the recursion are different ` ` # colors. Fiddle here to change colors to another ` ` # depths, or when the depth is even or odd , etc. ` ` if ` ` depth ` ` = ` ` = ` ` 0 ` `: ` ` ` ` color1 ` ` = ` ` (` ` 255 ` `, ` ` 0 ` `, ` ` 0 ` `) ` ` color2 ` ` = ` ` ( ` ` 0 ` `, ` ` 0 ` `, ` ` 255 ` `) ` ` else ` `: ` ` color1 ` ` = ` ` color ` ` color2 ` ` = ` ` color ` ` # make recursive calls to draw two subtrees ` ` newsz ` ` = ` ` sz ` ` * ` ` (` ` 1 ` ` - ` ` trunk_ratio) ` ` draw_tree (order - 1 , theta, newsz, newpos, heading - theta, color1, depth + 1 ) `` draw_tree (order - 1 , theta, newsz, newpos, heading + theta, color2, depth + 1 ) def main (): theta = 0 while True : # Update corner theta + = 0.01 # This little part lets us draw things # everything on screen main_surface.fill (( 255 , 255 , 0 )) draw_tree ( 9 , theta, surface_height * 0.9 , (surface_width / / 2 , surface_width - 50 ), - math.pi / 2 ) pygame.display.flip () # Calling the main function main () pygame.quit () `

Exit:

` % MINIF YHTMLc707a572199fb7b4b8a82374bf37b87213%      `

## Fractal trees in Python __del__: Questions

How can I make a time delay in Python?

I would like to know how to put a time delay in a Python script.

2973

``````import time
time.sleep(5)   # Delays for 5 seconds. You can also use a float value.
``````

Here is another example where something is run approximately once a minute:

``````import time
while True:
print("This prints once a minute.")
time.sleep(60) # Delay for 1 minute (60 seconds).
``````

2973

You can use the `sleep()` function in the `time` module. It can take a float argument for sub-second resolution.

``````from time import sleep
sleep(0.1) # Time in seconds
``````

How to delete a file or folder in Python?

How do I delete a file or folder in Python?

2639

`Path` objects from the Python 3.4+ `pathlib` module also expose these instance methods:

## Fractal trees in Python cos: Questions

How do I install pip on macOS or OS X?

I spent most of the day yesterday searching for a clear answer for installing `pip` (package manager for Python). I can"t find a good solution.

How do I install it?

1672

UPDATE (Jan 2019):

`easy_install` has been deprecated. Please use `get-pip.py` instead.

``````easy_install pip
``````

If you need admin privileges to run this, try:

``````sudo easy_install pip
``````

1672

‚ö°Ô∏è TL;DR ‚Äî One line solution.

All you have to do is:

``````sudo easy_install pip
``````

2019: ‚ö†Ô∏è`easy_install` has been deprecated. Check Method #2 below for preferred installation!

Details:

‚ö°Ô∏è OK, I read the solutions given above, but here"s an EASY solution to install `pip`.

MacOS comes with `Python` installed. But to make sure that you have `Python` installed open the terminal and run the following command.

``````python --version
``````

If this command returns a version number that means `Python` exists. Which also means that you already have access to `easy_install` considering you are using `macOS/OSX`.

‚ÑπÔ∏è Now, all you have to do is run the following command.

``````sudo easy_install pip
``````

After that, `pip` will be installed and you"ll be able to use it for installing other packages.

Let me know if you have any problems installing `pip` this way.

Cheers!

P.S. I ended up blogging a post about it. QuickTip: How Do I Install pip on macOS or OS X?

‚úÖ UPDATE (Jan 2019): METHOD #2: Two line solution ‚Äî

`easy_install` has been deprecated. Please use `get-pip.py` instead.

First of all download the `get-pip` file

``````curl https://bootstrap.pypa.io/get-pip.py -o get-pip.py
``````

Now run this file to install `pip`

``````python get-pip.py
``````

That should do it.

Another gif you said? Here ya go!

1672

You can install it through Homebrew on OS X. Why would you install Python with Homebrew?

The version of Python that ships with OS X is great for learning but it‚Äôs not good for development. The version shipped with OS X may be out of date from the official current Python release, which is considered the stable production version. (source)

Homebrew is something of a package manager for OS X. Find more details on the Homebrew page. Once Homebrew is installed, run the following to install the latest Python, Pip & Setuptools:

``````brew install python
``````

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