Change language

First class functions in Python

First class function properties:

  • A function is an instance of type Object.
  • You can store a function in a variable.
  • You can pass a function as a parameter to another function.
  • You can return a function from a function.
  • You can store them in data structures such as hash tables, lists, ...

Examples illustrating first class functions in Python

1. Functions are objects: Python functions are first class objects. In the example below, we are assigning a function to a variable. This assignment does not call the function. It takes the function object referenced by shout and creates a second name pointing to it, yell.

# Python program to illustrate functions
# can be viewed as objects

def shout ( text):

return text. upper ()


print shout ( ’Hello’ )


yell = shout


print yell ( ’Hello’ )



2. Functions can be passed as arguments to other functions: Since functions are objects, we can pass them as arguments to other functions. Functions that can take other functions as arguments are also called higher-order functions. In the example below, we have created a greet function that takes a function as an argument.

# Python program to illustrate functions
# can be passed as arguments to other functions

def shout (text):

  return text.upper ()


def whisper (text):

return text.lower ()


def greet (func):

  # store the function in a variable

  greeting = func ( " Hi, I am created by a function passed as an argument. " )

  print greeting 

greet (shout)
greet (whisper)


 HI, I AM CREATED BY A FUNCTION PASSED AS AN ARGUMENT. hi, i am created by a function passed as an argument. 

3. Functions can return another function: Since functions are objects, we can return a function from another function. In the example below, the create_adder function returns the adder function.


This article courtesy of Mayank Agrawal . If you are as Python.Engineering and would like to contribute, you can also write an article using or by posting an article contribute @ See my article appearing on the Python.Engineering homepage and help other geeks.

Please post comments if you find anything wrong or if you would like to share more information on the topic discussed above.


Learn programming in R: courses


Best Python online courses for 2022


Best laptop for Fortnite


Best laptop for Excel


Best laptop for Solidworks


Best laptop for Roblox


Best computer for crypto mining


Best laptop for Sims 4


Latest questions


psycopg2: insert multiple rows with one query

12 answers


How to convert Nonetype to int or string?

12 answers


How to specify multiple return types using type-hints

12 answers


Javascript Error: IPython is not defined in JupyterLab

12 answers


Python OpenCV | cv2.putText () method

numpy.arctan2 () in Python

Python | os.path.realpath () method

Python OpenCV | () method

Python OpenCV cv2.cvtColor () method

Python - Move item to the end of the list

time.perf_counter () function in Python

Check if one list is a subset of another in Python

Python os.path.join () method

# Python program to illustrate functions
# Functions can return another function


def create_adder (x):

def adder (y):

return x + y


return adder


add_15 = create_adder ( 15 )


print add_15 ( 10 )