Javascript As The First Programming Language

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The five simplest programming languages are:

Coding can be difficult. Whether you learn to code through self study, a programming bootcamp, or college course, it’s easy to get overwhelmed. For this reason, many novice programmers benefit from starting with one of the easier programming languages ‚Äã‚Äã . As more information on the 17 single programming languages and useful resources for control.

17 Programming Languages For Easiest To Learn

Let ’s take a look at 17 of the most popular programming languages easy to learn in 2020:


Although "HTML is not technically a programming language, learning how to create an HTML page is often the first step in program learning.

You might recognize "HTML" as part of a link to a website address or a browser bar. It stands for Hypertext Markup Language. HTML was originally designed to help people format their text documents, so that they can be presented to readers in a own mean ing.

With HTML, you create documents with building blocks called elements. For example, the element that contains the main content of an HTML page is called the "body" element. Within the body element, you will often see multiple "paragraphs" elements represented by a "

" that tell the browser where each paragraph resides.

Related reading: HTML To be the most efficient and as efficient as possible when writing HTML, it helps to have an editor to do some of the work for you. Check out our Complete List of the Best HTML Editors to find an option that suits your preferences.

2. CSS

Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) are most often used to define this what a web page should look like when viewed from a browser. For example, you can set the text color or the background color of certain elements with CSS

However, you can also define animations and when they should be presented to the user, decide when to hide or show certain content and control the positioning of page elements . When used correctly, CSS can improve the appearance, readability, and functionality of a website.

In fact, the article you are reading is currently built with HTML, CSS and JavaScript

Related reading: CSS When you start to get web development interviews it is imperative that you are prepared to answer some Interview Common CSS questions , as any potential employer expect to have mastered the technology

3. JavaScript

JavaScript (JS) is commonly used in conjunction nction with HTML and CSS to implement client-side functionality via small scripts "" This is why it is often referred to as a "scripting language." "

This feature includes actions such as showing more details when a user clicks a button or enhancing a text field to show the user if their password meets requirements. of security.

But it also includes more complex behaviors, such as sending safely and retrieving information from another server. By using HTML, CSS and JavaScript together in this way is often called the frontal development.

However, just because JavaScript is typically used to manipulate HTML elements or provide user interface functionality does not mean that these are its only functions. JavaScript is still powerful enough to perform tasks such as setting work of a search algorithm, the analysis of data provided by the user or the resolution of mathematical equations. There are also game engines created with JavaScript which can have awesome results!

In addition, JavaScript is not limited to the implementation work of the features client side. Some projects such as Node.js allow developers to create the standard functionality server side "/ client-server-vs-side development/"> JavaScript. With Javascript, you can be an efficient developer on the front end and the backend.

JavaScript demonstrates that just because a programming language is generally used in a certain way, it cannot be its use only. Although many people think of JavaScript as a simple scripting language, there is no limit to what you can do with it (or any other programming language, for that matter)

Related Reading: JAVASCRIPT If you are new to JS, the most important thing you can do to improve your skills is to get a lot of practice. For great opportunities to put your newfound programming skills to work, check out the full list of The Best Online JavaScript Coding Challenges . << / P> h3 id = "python"> 4. Python

Python is an easy generic programming language designed with readability in mind. As one of the simpler programming languages , it is often used as an introductory language for students starting their studies in computer science.

Type Python uses include setting implement back functionality - end for websites in through the libraries as Django and analysis. Python can also be used as a scripting language as part of a larger program. However, its popularity and average lifespan that Python has been used for just about everything.

If you want to start building your first program with Python, we recommend that you download and install a development environment on your computer. For this reason, Python may be a little harder to get started with JavaScript

Related reading: PYTHON There are unlimited resources online to learn Python, but if you’re the type who prefers something a little more traditional, be sure to check out our complete list of the best Python books which will keep you posted on this subject in -language required.

5. Ruby

Ruby is often compared to Python the two languages have case of common use. similar to Python, Ruby is a scripting language capable and can be used to analyze the data. However, Ruby was more and more used to web development .

is a great first programming language to learn. It has a friendly community with tons of free resources for newbie programmers, including many great .

Learn Programming is an Online Book that uses Ruby to teach you the basics of writing a program. For a more whimsical illustrated experience of learning the same concepts, you can read Why (Heartwarming ) Scouring Guide y.

Related reading: RUBY If you have l ’ intention to specialize in that language, make sure that you are prepared to answer some - some of the most frequent Ruby interview questions to impress your potential employers

6. Java

Java is from many developers from the first exposure to the principles of obj ect- oriented design. As one of the easiest programming languages to learn, it is commonly used to teach middle school students the basics of design patterns and software engineering href = " engineer / "> .

one another generic programming language, Java is the more popular for business development, can - be because of its simple nature, stability, and a large community of developers.

For example, a major project that uses Java is the Android Developer Kit (SDK) software. This project allows developers to create apps that work on devices using the Android operating system. Netflix is ‚Äã‚Äãanother example of the power of Java, the language has been used to lay the foundation for Netflix’s streaming service.

For those starting with programming, it can seem a little overwhelming learn Java . Compared to Python, Java is a bit more complicated, while requiring you to set up your development environment. However, once you start working in Java, you shouldn’t have too many surprises

7. PHP

PHP stands for PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor and is another generic programming language. However, its actual use is largely to provide the backend server functionality which is essential for many major sites today.

PHP makes it easy for them developers to retrieve and store data in the database data., The treatment and response to user requests. PHP is also considered to be one of the simplest programming languages due to the ease with which its responses can be presented to a user’s browser via HTML.

Some notable projects and services that use PHP include Facebook, Tumblr, and WordPress. It’s easy to see how influential PHP has remained, even with newer programming languages trying to get it out of hand. back - end web development .

Creating your first PHP program is as easy as inserting PHP code into an HTML page and uploading the file to a server that can process it. As a result, learning PHP is very simple

Laracast. "the PHP practitioner" The video series is a free resource for the fantastic beginners to build an understanding of web development and concepts. basic PHP programming.

8. C / C++

C and C++ are important lower level programming languages ‚Äã‚Äãwhich are especially useful in the context of build systems that need a high level of performance.

C++ can be considered an extension of lin c programming language, the addition of functionality is like the Object-oriented programming. However, there are many similarities between C and C++, especially for those looking for an easy-to-learn programming language.

These languages ‚Äã‚Äãare often de signed as low level languages because they leave a lot of memory management space for the programmer. They also allow you to use pointers to work with data structures to manipulate the information involved in the activity.

While all programming languages ‚Äã‚Äãrequire being specific with what you tell the computer to do, this is especially noticeable in C or C++. If you are not careful when working with these languages, you can accidentally access the wrong part of the memory, which causes unexpected behavior

Some notable projects using these existing languages . Linux kernel , written in C, and Adobe Photoshop software, written in C++.

An experienced programmer in these languages ‚Äã‚Äãwill be in great demand and valuable to an organization that creates programs where performance is very important.

For someone just starting out, C and C++ can be intimidating due to the increasing complexity of how you handle and interact with program memory. At the same time, however, starting your journey with one of those lower level languages may not prepare you to understand more nuanced subjects.

Prepare for Technical Interviews by Studying These Frequently Asked Questions from < / a> interview of C

9. C# 👻 Read also: what is the best laptop for engineering students?

Javascript As The First Programming Language __del__: Questions

How can I make a time delay in Python?

5 answers

I would like to know how to put a time delay in a Python script.


Answer #1

import time
time.sleep(5)   # Delays for 5 seconds. You can also use a float value.

Here is another example where something is run approximately once a minute:

import time
while True:
    print("This prints once a minute.")
    time.sleep(60) # Delay for 1 minute (60 seconds).


Answer #2

You can use the sleep() function in the time module. It can take a float argument for sub-second resolution.

from time import sleep
sleep(0.1) # Time in seconds

Javascript As The First Programming Language __del__: Questions

How to delete a file or folder in Python?

5 answers

How do I delete a file or folder in Python?


Answer #1

Path objects from the Python 3.4+ pathlib module also expose these instance methods:


How do I merge two dictionaries in a single expression (taking union of dictionaries)?

5 answers

Carl Meyer By Carl Meyer

I have two Python dictionaries, and I want to write a single expression that returns these two dictionaries, merged (i.e. taking the union). The update() method would be what I need, if it returned its result instead of modifying a dictionary in-place.

>>> x = {"a": 1, "b": 2}
>>> y = {"b": 10, "c": 11}
>>> z = x.update(y)
>>> print(z)
>>> x
{"a": 1, "b": 10, "c": 11}

How can I get that final merged dictionary in z, not x?

(To be extra-clear, the last-one-wins conflict-handling of dict.update() is what I"m looking for as well.)


Answer #1

How can I merge two Python dictionaries in a single expression?

For dictionaries x and y, z becomes a shallowly-merged dictionary with values from y replacing those from x.

  • In Python 3.9.0 or greater (released 17 October 2020): PEP-584, discussed here, was implemented and provides the simplest method:

    z = x | y          # NOTE: 3.9+ ONLY
  • In Python 3.5 or greater:

    z = {**x, **y}
  • In Python 2, (or 3.4 or lower) write a function:

    def merge_two_dicts(x, y):
        z = x.copy()   # start with keys and values of x
        z.update(y)    # modifies z with keys and values of y
        return z

    and now:

    z = merge_two_dicts(x, y)


Say you have two dictionaries and you want to merge them into a new dictionary without altering the original dictionaries:

x = {"a": 1, "b": 2}
y = {"b": 3, "c": 4}

The desired result is to get a new dictionary (z) with the values merged, and the second dictionary"s values overwriting those from the first.

>>> z
{"a": 1, "b": 3, "c": 4}

A new syntax for this, proposed in PEP 448 and available as of Python 3.5, is

z = {**x, **y}

And it is indeed a single expression.

Note that we can merge in with literal notation as well:

z = {**x, "foo": 1, "bar": 2, **y}

and now:

>>> z
{"a": 1, "b": 3, "foo": 1, "bar": 2, "c": 4}

It is now showing as implemented in the release schedule for 3.5, PEP 478, and it has now made its way into the What"s New in Python 3.5 document.

However, since many organizations are still on Python 2, you may wish to do this in a backward-compatible way. The classically Pythonic way, available in Python 2 and Python 3.0-3.4, is to do this as a two-step process:

z = x.copy()
z.update(y) # which returns None since it mutates z

In both approaches, y will come second and its values will replace x"s values, thus b will point to 3 in our final result.

Not yet on Python 3.5, but want a single expression

If you are not yet on Python 3.5 or need to write backward-compatible code, and you want this in a single expression, the most performant while the correct approach is to put it in a function:

def merge_two_dicts(x, y):
    """Given two dictionaries, merge them into a new dict as a shallow copy."""
    z = x.copy()
    return z

and then you have a single expression:

z = merge_two_dicts(x, y)

You can also make a function to merge an arbitrary number of dictionaries, from zero to a very large number:

def merge_dicts(*dict_args):
    Given any number of dictionaries, shallow copy and merge into a new dict,
    precedence goes to key-value pairs in latter dictionaries.
    result = {}
    for dictionary in dict_args:
    return result

This function will work in Python 2 and 3 for all dictionaries. e.g. given dictionaries a to g:

z = merge_dicts(a, b, c, d, e, f, g) 

and key-value pairs in g will take precedence over dictionaries a to f, and so on.

Critiques of Other Answers

Don"t use what you see in the formerly accepted answer:

z = dict(x.items() + y.items())

In Python 2, you create two lists in memory for each dict, create a third list in memory with length equal to the length of the first two put together, and then discard all three lists to create the dict. In Python 3, this will fail because you"re adding two dict_items objects together, not two lists -

>>> c = dict(a.items() + b.items())
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
TypeError: unsupported operand type(s) for +: "dict_items" and "dict_items"

and you would have to explicitly create them as lists, e.g. z = dict(list(x.items()) + list(y.items())). This is a waste of resources and computation power.

Similarly, taking the union of items() in Python 3 (viewitems() in Python 2.7) will also fail when values are unhashable objects (like lists, for example). Even if your values are hashable, since sets are semantically unordered, the behavior is undefined in regards to precedence. So don"t do this:

>>> c = dict(a.items() | b.items())

This example demonstrates what happens when values are unhashable:

>>> x = {"a": []}
>>> y = {"b": []}
>>> dict(x.items() | y.items())
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
TypeError: unhashable type: "list"

Here"s an example where y should have precedence, but instead the value from x is retained due to the arbitrary order of sets:

>>> x = {"a": 2}
>>> y = {"a": 1}
>>> dict(x.items() | y.items())
{"a": 2}

Another hack you should not use:

z = dict(x, **y)

This uses the dict constructor and is very fast and memory-efficient (even slightly more so than our two-step process) but unless you know precisely what is happening here (that is, the second dict is being passed as keyword arguments to the dict constructor), it"s difficult to read, it"s not the intended usage, and so it is not Pythonic.

Here"s an example of the usage being remediated in django.

Dictionaries are intended to take hashable keys (e.g. frozensets or tuples), but this method fails in Python 3 when keys are not strings.

>>> c = dict(a, **b)
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
TypeError: keyword arguments must be strings

From the mailing list, Guido van Rossum, the creator of the language, wrote:

I am fine with declaring dict({}, **{1:3}) illegal, since after all it is abuse of the ** mechanism.


Apparently dict(x, **y) is going around as "cool hack" for "call x.update(y) and return x". Personally, I find it more despicable than cool.

It is my understanding (as well as the understanding of the creator of the language) that the intended usage for dict(**y) is for creating dictionaries for readability purposes, e.g.:

dict(a=1, b=10, c=11)

instead of

{"a": 1, "b": 10, "c": 11}

Response to comments

Despite what Guido says, dict(x, **y) is in line with the dict specification, which btw. works for both Python 2 and 3. The fact that this only works for string keys is a direct consequence of how keyword parameters work and not a short-coming of dict. Nor is using the ** operator in this place an abuse of the mechanism, in fact, ** was designed precisely to pass dictionaries as keywords.

Again, it doesn"t work for 3 when keys are not strings. The implicit calling contract is that namespaces take ordinary dictionaries, while users must only pass keyword arguments that are strings. All other callables enforced it. dict broke this consistency in Python 2:

>>> foo(**{("a", "b"): None})
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
TypeError: foo() keywords must be strings
>>> dict(**{("a", "b"): None})
{("a", "b"): None}

This inconsistency was bad given other implementations of Python (PyPy, Jython, IronPython). Thus it was fixed in Python 3, as this usage could be a breaking change.

I submit to you that it is malicious incompetence to intentionally write code that only works in one version of a language or that only works given certain arbitrary constraints.

More comments:

dict(x.items() + y.items()) is still the most readable solution for Python 2. Readability counts.

My response: merge_two_dicts(x, y) actually seems much clearer to me, if we"re actually concerned about readability. And it is not forward compatible, as Python 2 is increasingly deprecated.

{**x, **y} does not seem to handle nested dictionaries. the contents of nested keys are simply overwritten, not merged [...] I ended up being burnt by these answers that do not merge recursively and I was surprised no one mentioned it. In my interpretation of the word "merging" these answers describe "updating one dict with another", and not merging.

Yes. I must refer you back to the question, which is asking for a shallow merge of two dictionaries, with the first"s values being overwritten by the second"s - in a single expression.

Assuming two dictionaries of dictionaries, one might recursively merge them in a single function, but you should be careful not to modify the dictionaries from either source, and the surest way to avoid that is to make a copy when assigning values. As keys must be hashable and are usually therefore immutable, it is pointless to copy them:

from copy import deepcopy

def dict_of_dicts_merge(x, y):
    z = {}
    overlapping_keys = x.keys() & y.keys()
    for key in overlapping_keys:
        z[key] = dict_of_dicts_merge(x[key], y[key])
    for key in x.keys() - overlapping_keys:
        z[key] = deepcopy(x[key])
    for key in y.keys() - overlapping_keys:
        z[key] = deepcopy(y[key])
    return z


>>> x = {"a":{1:{}}, "b": {2:{}}}
>>> y = {"b":{10:{}}, "c": {11:{}}}
>>> dict_of_dicts_merge(x, y)
{"b": {2: {}, 10: {}}, "a": {1: {}}, "c": {11: {}}}

Coming up with contingencies for other value types is far beyond the scope of this question, so I will point you at my answer to the canonical question on a "Dictionaries of dictionaries merge".

Less Performant But Correct Ad-hocs

These approaches are less performant, but they will provide correct behavior. They will be much less performant than copy and update or the new unpacking because they iterate through each key-value pair at a higher level of abstraction, but they do respect the order of precedence (latter dictionaries have precedence)

You can also chain the dictionaries manually inside a dict comprehension:

{k: v for d in dicts for k, v in d.items()} # iteritems in Python 2.7

or in Python 2.6 (and perhaps as early as 2.4 when generator expressions were introduced):

dict((k, v) for d in dicts for k, v in d.items()) # iteritems in Python 2

itertools.chain will chain the iterators over the key-value pairs in the correct order:

from itertools import chain
z = dict(chain(x.items(), y.items())) # iteritems in Python 2

Performance Analysis

I"m only going to do the performance analysis of the usages known to behave correctly. (Self-contained so you can copy and paste yourself.)

from timeit import repeat
from itertools import chain

x = dict.fromkeys("abcdefg")
y = dict.fromkeys("efghijk")

def merge_two_dicts(x, y):
    z = x.copy()
    return z

min(repeat(lambda: {**x, **y}))
min(repeat(lambda: merge_two_dicts(x, y)))
min(repeat(lambda: {k: v for d in (x, y) for k, v in d.items()}))
min(repeat(lambda: dict(chain(x.items(), y.items()))))
min(repeat(lambda: dict(item for d in (x, y) for item in d.items())))

In Python 3.8.1, NixOS:

>>> min(repeat(lambda: {**x, **y}))
>>> min(repeat(lambda: merge_two_dicts(x, y)))
>>> min(repeat(lambda: {k: v for d in (x, y) for k, v in d.items()}))
>>> min(repeat(lambda: dict(chain(x.items(), y.items()))))
>>> min(repeat(lambda: dict(item for d in (x, y) for item in d.items())))
$ uname -a
Linux nixos 4.19.113 #1-NixOS SMP Wed Mar 25 07:06:15 UTC 2020 x86_64 GNU/Linux

Resources on Dictionaries


Answer #2

In your case, what you can do is:

z = dict(list(x.items()) + list(y.items()))

This will, as you want it, put the final dict in z, and make the value for key b be properly overridden by the second (y) dict"s value:

>>> x = {"a":1, "b": 2}
>>> y = {"b":10, "c": 11}
>>> z = dict(list(x.items()) + list(y.items()))
>>> z
{"a": 1, "c": 11, "b": 10}

If you use Python 2, you can even remove the list() calls. To create z:

>>> z = dict(x.items() + y.items())
>>> z
{"a": 1, "c": 11, "b": 10}

If you use Python version 3.9.0a4 or greater, then you can directly use:

x = {"a":1, "b": 2}
y = {"b":10, "c": 11}
z = x | y
{"a": 1, "c": 11, "b": 10}


Answer #3

An alternative:

z = x.copy()

We hope this article has helped you to resolve the problem. Apart from Javascript As The First Programming Language, check other __del__-related topics.

Want to excel in Python? See our review of the best Python online courses 2022. If you are interested in Data Science, check also how to learn programming in R.

By the way, this material is also available in other languages:

Julia Lehnman

Vigrinia | 2022-12-10

Thanks for explaining! I was stuck with Javascript As The First Programming Language for some hours, finally got it done 🤗. I am just not quite sure it is the best method

Boris Ungerschaft

Massachussetts | 2022-12-10

I was preparing for my coding interview, thanks for clarifying this - Javascript As The First Programming Language in Python is not the simplest one. Will get back tomorrow with feedback

Olivia Krasiko

Texas | 2022-12-10

I was preparing for my coding interview, thanks for clarifying this - Javascript As The First Programming Language in Python is not the simplest one. I just hope that will not emerge anymore


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