Javascript Overflow X

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Managing overflowing content is an important characteristic of good web design.

When designing an element on a web page, there may be a scenario where the content of the element cannot fit within its limits. Doing so could cause your web page to display unexpectedly. This is where the CSS overflow property comes in.

The overflow property is used to handle instances where the content of an element cannot fit within its border. Referring to the examples, this tutorial will explain how to use the CSS overflow property in code.

CSS overflow

The overflow property allows you to specify what happens when content is too large to fit in the space allocated to this element.

For example, suppose you have defined a defined tag is only 250 pixels high by 500 pixels wide and there is too much text to fit in the space specified for the paragraph.

You can use the overflow property to handle this problem and make sure that your content is displayed correctly on the user’s screen. By specifying an overflow property, you can reduce the risk that the content of a web item is displayed incorrectly.

The overflow property has four potential values. These are:

  • visible. The overflow in an element is not clipped and the content is displayed outside the element box. This is the default value for the overflow property.
  • scroll. Overflow in an element is cut and a scroll bar is created to allow the user to view the rest of the content in an element.
  • hidden. The overflow in an element is truncated and the rest of the content will be hidden from the user.
  • auto. Auto adds scroll bars to see the rest of an item’s content, but only when needed.

The overflow property can only be applied to block level elements that have been assigned a specific height using the "height" attribute .

CSS Overflow Examples

Let’s look at an example of each of the potential values ‚Äã‚Äãthat can be used with the overflow property. We’ll start with the overflow: visible property.

Visible overflow

The visible value is the default overflow value set for a web element. Items with the value visible are not truncated and their content is displayed outside the item area.

Suppose you are designing a box that includes a few lines of text. If the text we specify is too large for the box, we want it to appear outside the box. We could use the following code to do this:

This is a box with text. We use this box to illustrate what happens when you use the CSS overflow property and set it to "visible".
styles.css div {width: 200px; height: 100px; background color: light gray ; overflow: visible; }

Our code returns:

[Code result here]

Let’s break our code. In our code, we created a box that is 200 pixels wide by 100 pixels high. Our box has a light gray background color. These styles are applied or the tag cannot fit inside element, the text should appear outside the element area. As you can see, this resulted in overflow of out-of-the-box text.

The visible overflow value, while useful, may not be as appropriate as other values ‚Äã‚Äãfor the overflow property. This is because in most cases you don’t want an element’s content to spill over, as the excess content could interfere with other styles you have created for a web page.

Scroll overflow

The scroll value allows you to crop the overflowing content of a web element. Then a scroll bar will be added to the item so that the user can see the excess content.

The excess scroll value adds a vertical and horizontal scroll bar to a web element, even if you don’t need one of those scroll bars.

Let’s say you design a box and you want the excess text to stay inside our box. If there is excess text, a scroll bar should appear so the user can navigate the box.

Here is the code we could use to design our box:

This is a box with text. We use this box to illustrate what happens when you use the CSS overflow property and set it to "scroll". styles.css div {width: 200 px; height: 100px; background color: light gray; overflow: flow; }

Our code returns:

[Result code here]

In our code , we created a box 200px wide by 100px high. a light gray background color.

Also, let’s set the overflow property to be equal to "scroll". As you can see, because there is too much text to fit in our box, a scroll bar will appear and the excess text will stay inside the borders of the box.

Auto Overflow

In the last section, we mentioned that the scroll property adds both horizontal and vertical scroll bars to a web element, even though l one of these scroll bars is not necessary.

This can be useful in many cases, but when designing a web item you might want only the parent to display the scroll bar. To do this, you can use the value auto.

The auto value works similarly to the scroll value, but adds scroll bars to a web element only when needed. Suppose you have a text box and you want to add scroll bars to the box only when needed. We could do it using this code:

This is a box with some text. We use this box to illustrate what happens when you use the CSS overflow property and set it to "auto". styles.css div {width: 200 px; height: 100px; background color: light gray; overflow: automatic; }

Our code returns:

[Result code here]

In the our example above, we created a box that is 200px wide by 100px high with a light gray background. Next, we set the value of the overflow property to auto. As you can see, only a scroll bar is shown in our final result. Indeed, only a scroll bar is needed to display the overflowing content in our text box.

Hidden Overflow

You may decide that you want all content to overflow into an element to be cropped and then hidden from the user. This is achieved by using the masked overflow value.

Suppose you have a text box whose content you want to hide if it spills outside the element. You can use the following code to create this box:

This is a box with text. We use this box to illustrate what happens when you use the CSS overflow property and set it to "hidden". styles.css div {width: 200 px; height: 100px; background color: light gray; hidden overflow; }

Our code returns:

[Result code here]

Unlike our previous examples, the excess text from our box is hidden from the user. This is because we set the value of the overflow properties to hidden in our code.

overflow-x and overflow-y

Overflow-x and overflow y properties allow you to change the way content overflow is handled on each axis individually.

The overflow-x property specifies how the overflow on the left and right edges of a box is handled and the overflow-y property specifies how the overflow on the top and bottom edges of a box is handled. box must be managed.

Let’s say you are designing a box and want to set two different overflow values ‚Äã‚Äãfor the x and y axes The x axis should use the low overf value hidden and the y-axis must use the overflow value scroll. You can use the following code to do this:

This is a box with text. We use this box to illustrate what happens when you use the CSS x-overflow and y-overflow properties to set overflow values ‚Äã‚Äãfor individual axes in a web element. styles.css div {width: 200 px; height: 100px; background color: light gray; overflow-x: hidden ; overflow-y: vertical; }

Our code returns:

[Result code here]

How you can see, our box has no horizontal scroll bar. Indeed, we have set the overflow-x value to " hidden ". However, our box has a vertical scroll bar, which appears because we set the overflow-y value to "scroll".

Conclusion

The CSS overflow property specifies what an item’s content should look like if the item’s content is too large to fit in the assigned area on the web page.

This tutorial explored, referring to a few examples, how to use the CSS overflow property and its four values ‚Äã‚Äãto control overflow in web elements. You are now ready to start using the CSS overflow property like an experienced developer.

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Javascript Overflow X clip: Questions

clip

How do I copy a string to the clipboard?

2 answers

Dancrew32 By Dancrew32

I"m trying to make a basic Windows application that builds a string out of user input and then adds it to the clipboard. How do I copy a string to the clipboard using Python?

215

Answer #1

Actually, pywin32 and ctypes seem to be an overkill for this simple task. Tkinter is a cross-platform GUI framework, which ships with Python by default and has clipboard accessing methods along with other cool stuff.

If all you need is to put some text to system clipboard, this will do it:

from Tkinter import Tk
r = Tk()
r.withdraw()
r.clipboard_clear()
r.clipboard_append("i can has clipboardz?")
r.update() # now it stays on the clipboard after the window is closed
r.destroy()

And that"s all, no need to mess around with platform-specific third-party libraries.

If you are using Python 3, replace TKinter with tkinter.

Javascript Overflow X clip: Questions

clip

Python script to copy text to clipboard

2 answers

I just need a python script that copies text to the clipboard.

After the script gets executed i need the output of the text to be pasted to another source. Is it possible to write a python script that does this job?

194

Answer #1

See Pyperclip. Example (taken from Pyperclip site):

import pyperclip
pyperclip.copy("The text to be copied to the clipboard.")
spam = pyperclip.paste()

Also, see Xerox. But it appears to have more dependencies.

exp

How do I merge two dictionaries in a single expression (taking union of dictionaries)?

5 answers

Carl Meyer By Carl Meyer

I have two Python dictionaries, and I want to write a single expression that returns these two dictionaries, merged (i.e. taking the union). The update() method would be what I need, if it returned its result instead of modifying a dictionary in-place.

>>> x = {"a": 1, "b": 2}
>>> y = {"b": 10, "c": 11}
>>> z = x.update(y)
>>> print(z)
None
>>> x
{"a": 1, "b": 10, "c": 11}

How can I get that final merged dictionary in z, not x?

(To be extra-clear, the last-one-wins conflict-handling of dict.update() is what I"m looking for as well.)

5839

Answer #1

How can I merge two Python dictionaries in a single expression?

For dictionaries x and y, z becomes a shallowly-merged dictionary with values from y replacing those from x.

  • In Python 3.9.0 or greater (released 17 October 2020): PEP-584, discussed here, was implemented and provides the simplest method:

    z = x | y          # NOTE: 3.9+ ONLY
    
  • In Python 3.5 or greater:

    z = {**x, **y}
    
  • In Python 2, (or 3.4 or lower) write a function:

    def merge_two_dicts(x, y):
        z = x.copy()   # start with keys and values of x
        z.update(y)    # modifies z with keys and values of y
        return z
    

    and now:

    z = merge_two_dicts(x, y)
    

Explanation

Say you have two dictionaries and you want to merge them into a new dictionary without altering the original dictionaries:

x = {"a": 1, "b": 2}
y = {"b": 3, "c": 4}

The desired result is to get a new dictionary (z) with the values merged, and the second dictionary"s values overwriting those from the first.

>>> z
{"a": 1, "b": 3, "c": 4}

A new syntax for this, proposed in PEP 448 and available as of Python 3.5, is

z = {**x, **y}

And it is indeed a single expression.

Note that we can merge in with literal notation as well:

z = {**x, "foo": 1, "bar": 2, **y}

and now:

>>> z
{"a": 1, "b": 3, "foo": 1, "bar": 2, "c": 4}

It is now showing as implemented in the release schedule for 3.5, PEP 478, and it has now made its way into the What"s New in Python 3.5 document.

However, since many organizations are still on Python 2, you may wish to do this in a backward-compatible way. The classically Pythonic way, available in Python 2 and Python 3.0-3.4, is to do this as a two-step process:

z = x.copy()
z.update(y) # which returns None since it mutates z

In both approaches, y will come second and its values will replace x"s values, thus b will point to 3 in our final result.

Not yet on Python 3.5, but want a single expression

If you are not yet on Python 3.5 or need to write backward-compatible code, and you want this in a single expression, the most performant while the correct approach is to put it in a function:

def merge_two_dicts(x, y):
    """Given two dictionaries, merge them into a new dict as a shallow copy."""
    z = x.copy()
    z.update(y)
    return z

and then you have a single expression:

z = merge_two_dicts(x, y)

You can also make a function to merge an arbitrary number of dictionaries, from zero to a very large number:

def merge_dicts(*dict_args):
    """
    Given any number of dictionaries, shallow copy and merge into a new dict,
    precedence goes to key-value pairs in latter dictionaries.
    """
    result = {}
    for dictionary in dict_args:
        result.update(dictionary)
    return result

This function will work in Python 2 and 3 for all dictionaries. e.g. given dictionaries a to g:

z = merge_dicts(a, b, c, d, e, f, g) 

and key-value pairs in g will take precedence over dictionaries a to f, and so on.

Critiques of Other Answers

Don"t use what you see in the formerly accepted answer:

z = dict(x.items() + y.items())

In Python 2, you create two lists in memory for each dict, create a third list in memory with length equal to the length of the first two put together, and then discard all three lists to create the dict. In Python 3, this will fail because you"re adding two dict_items objects together, not two lists -

>>> c = dict(a.items() + b.items())
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
TypeError: unsupported operand type(s) for +: "dict_items" and "dict_items"

and you would have to explicitly create them as lists, e.g. z = dict(list(x.items()) + list(y.items())). This is a waste of resources and computation power.

Similarly, taking the union of items() in Python 3 (viewitems() in Python 2.7) will also fail when values are unhashable objects (like lists, for example). Even if your values are hashable, since sets are semantically unordered, the behavior is undefined in regards to precedence. So don"t do this:

>>> c = dict(a.items() | b.items())

This example demonstrates what happens when values are unhashable:

>>> x = {"a": []}
>>> y = {"b": []}
>>> dict(x.items() | y.items())
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
TypeError: unhashable type: "list"

Here"s an example where y should have precedence, but instead the value from x is retained due to the arbitrary order of sets:

>>> x = {"a": 2}
>>> y = {"a": 1}
>>> dict(x.items() | y.items())
{"a": 2}

Another hack you should not use:

z = dict(x, **y)

This uses the dict constructor and is very fast and memory-efficient (even slightly more so than our two-step process) but unless you know precisely what is happening here (that is, the second dict is being passed as keyword arguments to the dict constructor), it"s difficult to read, it"s not the intended usage, and so it is not Pythonic.

Here"s an example of the usage being remediated in django.

Dictionaries are intended to take hashable keys (e.g. frozensets or tuples), but this method fails in Python 3 when keys are not strings.

>>> c = dict(a, **b)
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
TypeError: keyword arguments must be strings

From the mailing list, Guido van Rossum, the creator of the language, wrote:

I am fine with declaring dict({}, **{1:3}) illegal, since after all it is abuse of the ** mechanism.

and

Apparently dict(x, **y) is going around as "cool hack" for "call x.update(y) and return x". Personally, I find it more despicable than cool.

It is my understanding (as well as the understanding of the creator of the language) that the intended usage for dict(**y) is for creating dictionaries for readability purposes, e.g.:

dict(a=1, b=10, c=11)

instead of

{"a": 1, "b": 10, "c": 11}

Response to comments

Despite what Guido says, dict(x, **y) is in line with the dict specification, which btw. works for both Python 2 and 3. The fact that this only works for string keys is a direct consequence of how keyword parameters work and not a short-coming of dict. Nor is using the ** operator in this place an abuse of the mechanism, in fact, ** was designed precisely to pass dictionaries as keywords.

Again, it doesn"t work for 3 when keys are not strings. The implicit calling contract is that namespaces take ordinary dictionaries, while users must only pass keyword arguments that are strings. All other callables enforced it. dict broke this consistency in Python 2:

>>> foo(**{("a", "b"): None})
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
TypeError: foo() keywords must be strings
>>> dict(**{("a", "b"): None})
{("a", "b"): None}

This inconsistency was bad given other implementations of Python (PyPy, Jython, IronPython). Thus it was fixed in Python 3, as this usage could be a breaking change.

I submit to you that it is malicious incompetence to intentionally write code that only works in one version of a language or that only works given certain arbitrary constraints.

More comments:

dict(x.items() + y.items()) is still the most readable solution for Python 2. Readability counts.

My response: merge_two_dicts(x, y) actually seems much clearer to me, if we"re actually concerned about readability. And it is not forward compatible, as Python 2 is increasingly deprecated.

{**x, **y} does not seem to handle nested dictionaries. the contents of nested keys are simply overwritten, not merged [...] I ended up being burnt by these answers that do not merge recursively and I was surprised no one mentioned it. In my interpretation of the word "merging" these answers describe "updating one dict with another", and not merging.

Yes. I must refer you back to the question, which is asking for a shallow merge of two dictionaries, with the first"s values being overwritten by the second"s - in a single expression.

Assuming two dictionaries of dictionaries, one might recursively merge them in a single function, but you should be careful not to modify the dictionaries from either source, and the surest way to avoid that is to make a copy when assigning values. As keys must be hashable and are usually therefore immutable, it is pointless to copy them:

from copy import deepcopy

def dict_of_dicts_merge(x, y):
    z = {}
    overlapping_keys = x.keys() & y.keys()
    for key in overlapping_keys:
        z[key] = dict_of_dicts_merge(x[key], y[key])
    for key in x.keys() - overlapping_keys:
        z[key] = deepcopy(x[key])
    for key in y.keys() - overlapping_keys:
        z[key] = deepcopy(y[key])
    return z

Usage:

>>> x = {"a":{1:{}}, "b": {2:{}}}
>>> y = {"b":{10:{}}, "c": {11:{}}}
>>> dict_of_dicts_merge(x, y)
{"b": {2: {}, 10: {}}, "a": {1: {}}, "c": {11: {}}}

Coming up with contingencies for other value types is far beyond the scope of this question, so I will point you at my answer to the canonical question on a "Dictionaries of dictionaries merge".

Less Performant But Correct Ad-hocs

These approaches are less performant, but they will provide correct behavior. They will be much less performant than copy and update or the new unpacking because they iterate through each key-value pair at a higher level of abstraction, but they do respect the order of precedence (latter dictionaries have precedence)

You can also chain the dictionaries manually inside a dict comprehension:

{k: v for d in dicts for k, v in d.items()} # iteritems in Python 2.7

or in Python 2.6 (and perhaps as early as 2.4 when generator expressions were introduced):

dict((k, v) for d in dicts for k, v in d.items()) # iteritems in Python 2

itertools.chain will chain the iterators over the key-value pairs in the correct order:

from itertools import chain
z = dict(chain(x.items(), y.items())) # iteritems in Python 2

Performance Analysis

I"m only going to do the performance analysis of the usages known to behave correctly. (Self-contained so you can copy and paste yourself.)

from timeit import repeat
from itertools import chain

x = dict.fromkeys("abcdefg")
y = dict.fromkeys("efghijk")

def merge_two_dicts(x, y):
    z = x.copy()
    z.update(y)
    return z

min(repeat(lambda: {**x, **y}))
min(repeat(lambda: merge_two_dicts(x, y)))
min(repeat(lambda: {k: v for d in (x, y) for k, v in d.items()}))
min(repeat(lambda: dict(chain(x.items(), y.items()))))
min(repeat(lambda: dict(item for d in (x, y) for item in d.items())))

In Python 3.8.1, NixOS:

>>> min(repeat(lambda: {**x, **y}))
1.0804965235292912
>>> min(repeat(lambda: merge_two_dicts(x, y)))
1.636518670246005
>>> min(repeat(lambda: {k: v for d in (x, y) for k, v in d.items()}))
3.1779992282390594
>>> min(repeat(lambda: dict(chain(x.items(), y.items()))))
2.740647904574871
>>> min(repeat(lambda: dict(item for d in (x, y) for item in d.items())))
4.266070580109954
$ uname -a
Linux nixos 4.19.113 #1-NixOS SMP Wed Mar 25 07:06:15 UTC 2020 x86_64 GNU/Linux

Resources on Dictionaries

5839

Answer #2

In your case, what you can do is:

z = dict(list(x.items()) + list(y.items()))

This will, as you want it, put the final dict in z, and make the value for key b be properly overridden by the second (y) dict"s value:

>>> x = {"a":1, "b": 2}
>>> y = {"b":10, "c": 11}
>>> z = dict(list(x.items()) + list(y.items()))
>>> z
{"a": 1, "c": 11, "b": 10}

If you use Python 2, you can even remove the list() calls. To create z:

>>> z = dict(x.items() + y.items())
>>> z
{"a": 1, "c": 11, "b": 10}

If you use Python version 3.9.0a4 or greater, then you can directly use:

x = {"a":1, "b": 2}
y = {"b":10, "c": 11}
z = x | y
print(z)
{"a": 1, "c": 11, "b": 10}

5839

Answer #3

An alternative:

z = x.copy()
z.update(y)

We hope this article has helped you to resolve the problem. Apart from Javascript Overflow X, check other clip-related topics.

Want to excel in Python? See our review of the best Python online courses 2022. If you are interested in Data Science, check also how to learn programming in R.

By the way, this material is also available in other languages:



Julia Ungerschaft

Abu Dhabi | 2022-11-28

Maybe there are another answers? What Javascript Overflow X exactly means?. Will use it in my bachelor thesis

Dmitry Gonzalez

Munchen | 2022-11-28

Maybe there are another answers? What Javascript Overflow X exactly means?. I just hope that will not emerge anymore

Manuel Ungerschaft

Tallinn | 2022-11-28

Thanks for explaining! I was stuck with Javascript Overflow X for some hours, finally got it done 🤗. I just hope that will not emerge anymore

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