Javascript Gets Element Height

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When designing a web page, you will probably want to specify specific dimensions for the elements that appear on the web page. For example, you might want a box to have a certain height or a line of text to extend to a certain width.

is where the CSS height and width properties come into play. The height and width properties are used to define the height and width of an element in CSS.

This tutorial will discuss, with examples, the basics of CSS height and width properties and how to use min and maximum height and width properties for designing responsive elements. By the end of this tutorial, you will be well versed in using CSS height and width properties to set the size of an element on a web page.

CSS height and width

Adjusting the height and width of an element on a web page allows you to define the space that the element will occupy on the web page . This can help you develop a structure for the elements of your web page so that each element appears correctly according to your needs.

To define how far an element can extend horizontally and vertically, you can use the width and height properties, respectively.

The width and height properties allow you to set a specific width and height for the content area of a box. This means that the width and height properties control the amount of space a box contains and do not affect a margin or a set of padding for a box

The height and width properties use the following syntax:.

HeightValue and widthValue can accept any of the following values:

  • auto: the browser automatically calculates height and width
  • length:. the width or height of a frame in px, em, rem, etc.
  • percentage: the width or height of a box as a percentage of the size of the blocks in which an initial
  • element appears:. the default value specified for the
  • inherit: box. the same value as the width or height of the box in which an element appears

Now that we know the basics of height and width properties, we can explore an example of each of these properties in action.

CSS height and width

Suppose we are designing a website for a local cafe called The Pickled Apple. This cafe asked us to create a box on their "About" website, which should contain a brief description of the cafe.

This area should be 200px wide and 200px high and have a light gray background. These dimensions were chosen to make sure that the other elements we want to add to the web page shape when we implement them.

We could use the following code to create the box:.

Click Image of the button

Let ’s analyze our code .. In our HTML file, we created a paragraph of text using a

tag. This

tag has the class name AboutBox, which we use in our CSS file to style the text paragraph.

In our CSS file, we have defined a style rule that applies to any element with the class name AboutBox. This style rule sets the height of an element to 200px, the width of an element to 200px, and sets the background color of an element to light gray.

If we want our element to be 100px wide. We need could change the width property equal to 100px. Or, if we wanted our element to be 300px high, we could change the Height property to equal 300px

properties of CSS minimum and maximum length

width and height are fixed values. this means that the specified width and height remain the same and will not change if you resize the window or view the webpage on another device (unless you use a height relative value, for example a percentage of the size of the parent element).

It’s important to understand this because if you want to design an accessible experience, it may not be practical to set specific heights and widths for the elements. For example, if you specify the image width to 500px, the picture may not render properly if a user views the site on a mobile device, the size of the screen may be smaller.

is where the minimum and maximum length values .

To adapt an element to screens and window dimensions , you can use the minimum width, m ax width, min-height, and the max-height properties. When you specify these properties, the values ‚Äã‚Äãspecified for width and height will override.

The min-height property defines the minimum height of a property. If the minimum height is specified, the height of an element can never be less than the minimum height value. The min-width property defines the minimum width of a property and works the same way.

Likewise , if you want to set the maximum height or width of a property, you can use max height and maximum width, respectively.

Let’s go back to our coffee example from earlier. Suppose we want to change the width of our box based on the user’s screen size . The maximum box width should be 500px and our box should never be narrower than 100px. We could do this using the following code:

Click Image of the button

Let ’s analyze our code and chat. How it works. In our HTML file, we specified a paragraph of text between

tags containing the same text as our first example. The name of the class associated with this text paragraph is AboutBox.

In our CSS file, we have specified three properties associated with AboutBox class

The width of the property max- is set to 500px, which means the maximum box width is 500px. The min width property is set to 100px, which means that the box will never appear narrower than 100px, no matter what device a user is viewing the site on. The background-color property is set to LightGray, which sets the background color of our box to light gray.

The size of this area changes depending on the size of the browser. So if you make your browser window smaller, the size of the box will change accordingly. However, no matter how large your browser window appears, the width of the

tag will never exceed 500px.

Conclusion

The CSS height and width properties allow you to define the height and width of an element on a web page.

However, these properties set a fixed value for the height and width of an element. If you want the size of a box to change based on the size of the browser window, you can use the min height, min-width, max-height and max-width properties.

This tutorial has discussed, referring to examples, the basics of height and width in CSS, how to use height and width properties, and how to use maximum height and width and minimum matching properties to define the size of an element of a web page. You are now ready to start using the height and width properties like an expert!

👻 Read also: what is the best laptop for engineering students?

Javascript Gets Element Height circle: Questions

circle

How to do a scatter plot with empty circles in Python?

2 answers

In Python, with Matplotlib, how can a scatter plot with empty circles be plotted? The goal is to draw empty circles around some of the colored disks already plotted by scatter(), so as to highlight them, ideally without having to redraw the colored circles.

I tried facecolors=None, to no avail.

204

Answer #1

From the documentation for scatter:

Optional kwargs control the Collection properties; in particular:

    edgecolors:
        The string ‘none’ to plot faces with no outlines
    facecolors:
        The string ‘none’ to plot unfilled outlines

Try the following:

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt 
import numpy as np 

x = np.random.randn(60) 
y = np.random.randn(60)

plt.scatter(x, y, s=80, facecolors="none", edgecolors="r")
plt.show()

example image

Note: For other types of plots see this post on the use of markeredgecolor and markerfacecolor.

Javascript Gets Element Height circle: Questions

circle

plot a circle with pyplot

2 answers

surprisingly I didn"t find a straight-forward description on how to draw a circle with matplotlib.pyplot (please no pylab) taking as input center (x,y) and radius r. I tried some variants of this:

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
circle=plt.Circle((0,0),2)
# here must be something like circle.plot() or not?
plt.show()

... but still didn"t get it working.

199

Answer #1

You need to add it to an axes. A Circle is a subclass of an Patch, and an axes has an add_patch method. (You can also use add_artist but it"s not recommended.)

Here"s an example of doing this:

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

circle1 = plt.Circle((0, 0), 0.2, color="r")
circle2 = plt.Circle((0.5, 0.5), 0.2, color="blue")
circle3 = plt.Circle((1, 1), 0.2, color="g", clip_on=False)

fig, ax = plt.subplots() # note we must use plt.subplots, not plt.subplot
# (or if you have an existing figure)
# fig = plt.gcf()
# ax = fig.gca()

ax.add_patch(circle1)
ax.add_patch(circle2)
ax.add_patch(circle3)

fig.savefig("plotcircles.png")

This results in the following figure:

The first circle is at the origin, but by default clip_on is True, so the circle is clipped when ever it extends beyond the axes. The third (green) circle shows what happens when you don"t clip the Artist. It extends beyond the axes (but not beyond the figure, ie the figure size is not automatically adjusted to plot all of your artists).

The units for x, y and radius correspond to data units by default. In this case, I didn"t plot anything on my axes (fig.gca() returns the current axes), and since the limits have never been set, they defaults to an x and y range from 0 to 1.

Here"s a continuation of the example, showing how units matter:

circle1 = plt.Circle((0, 0), 2, color="r")
# now make a circle with no fill, which is good for hi-lighting key results
circle2 = plt.Circle((5, 5), 0.5, color="b", fill=False)
circle3 = plt.Circle((10, 10), 2, color="g", clip_on=False)
    
ax = plt.gca()
ax.cla() # clear things for fresh plot

# change default range so that new circles will work
ax.set_xlim((0, 10))
ax.set_ylim((0, 10))
# some data
ax.plot(range(11), "o", color="black")
# key data point that we are encircling
ax.plot((5), (5), "o", color="y")
    
ax.add_patch(circle1)
ax.add_patch(circle2)
ax.add_patch(circle3)
fig.savefig("plotcircles2.png")

which results in:

You can see how I set the fill of the 2nd circle to False, which is useful for encircling key results (like my yellow data point).

exp

How do I merge two dictionaries in a single expression (taking union of dictionaries)?

5 answers

Carl Meyer By Carl Meyer

I have two Python dictionaries, and I want to write a single expression that returns these two dictionaries, merged (i.e. taking the union). The update() method would be what I need, if it returned its result instead of modifying a dictionary in-place.

>>> x = {"a": 1, "b": 2}
>>> y = {"b": 10, "c": 11}
>>> z = x.update(y)
>>> print(z)
None
>>> x
{"a": 1, "b": 10, "c": 11}

How can I get that final merged dictionary in z, not x?

(To be extra-clear, the last-one-wins conflict-handling of dict.update() is what I"m looking for as well.)

5839

Answer #1

How can I merge two Python dictionaries in a single expression?

For dictionaries x and y, z becomes a shallowly-merged dictionary with values from y replacing those from x.

  • In Python 3.9.0 or greater (released 17 October 2020): PEP-584, discussed here, was implemented and provides the simplest method:

    z = x | y          # NOTE: 3.9+ ONLY
    
  • In Python 3.5 or greater:

    z = {**x, **y}
    
  • In Python 2, (or 3.4 or lower) write a function:

    def merge_two_dicts(x, y):
        z = x.copy()   # start with keys and values of x
        z.update(y)    # modifies z with keys and values of y
        return z
    

    and now:

    z = merge_two_dicts(x, y)
    

Explanation

Say you have two dictionaries and you want to merge them into a new dictionary without altering the original dictionaries:

x = {"a": 1, "b": 2}
y = {"b": 3, "c": 4}

The desired result is to get a new dictionary (z) with the values merged, and the second dictionary"s values overwriting those from the first.

>>> z
{"a": 1, "b": 3, "c": 4}

A new syntax for this, proposed in PEP 448 and available as of Python 3.5, is

z = {**x, **y}

And it is indeed a single expression.

Note that we can merge in with literal notation as well:

z = {**x, "foo": 1, "bar": 2, **y}

and now:

>>> z
{"a": 1, "b": 3, "foo": 1, "bar": 2, "c": 4}

It is now showing as implemented in the release schedule for 3.5, PEP 478, and it has now made its way into the What"s New in Python 3.5 document.

However, since many organizations are still on Python 2, you may wish to do this in a backward-compatible way. The classically Pythonic way, available in Python 2 and Python 3.0-3.4, is to do this as a two-step process:

z = x.copy()
z.update(y) # which returns None since it mutates z

In both approaches, y will come second and its values will replace x"s values, thus b will point to 3 in our final result.

Not yet on Python 3.5, but want a single expression

If you are not yet on Python 3.5 or need to write backward-compatible code, and you want this in a single expression, the most performant while the correct approach is to put it in a function:

def merge_two_dicts(x, y):
    """Given two dictionaries, merge them into a new dict as a shallow copy."""
    z = x.copy()
    z.update(y)
    return z

and then you have a single expression:

z = merge_two_dicts(x, y)

You can also make a function to merge an arbitrary number of dictionaries, from zero to a very large number:

def merge_dicts(*dict_args):
    """
    Given any number of dictionaries, shallow copy and merge into a new dict,
    precedence goes to key-value pairs in latter dictionaries.
    """
    result = {}
    for dictionary in dict_args:
        result.update(dictionary)
    return result

This function will work in Python 2 and 3 for all dictionaries. e.g. given dictionaries a to g:

z = merge_dicts(a, b, c, d, e, f, g) 

and key-value pairs in g will take precedence over dictionaries a to f, and so on.

Critiques of Other Answers

Don"t use what you see in the formerly accepted answer:

z = dict(x.items() + y.items())

In Python 2, you create two lists in memory for each dict, create a third list in memory with length equal to the length of the first two put together, and then discard all three lists to create the dict. In Python 3, this will fail because you"re adding two dict_items objects together, not two lists -

>>> c = dict(a.items() + b.items())
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
TypeError: unsupported operand type(s) for +: "dict_items" and "dict_items"

and you would have to explicitly create them as lists, e.g. z = dict(list(x.items()) + list(y.items())). This is a waste of resources and computation power.

Similarly, taking the union of items() in Python 3 (viewitems() in Python 2.7) will also fail when values are unhashable objects (like lists, for example). Even if your values are hashable, since sets are semantically unordered, the behavior is undefined in regards to precedence. So don"t do this:

>>> c = dict(a.items() | b.items())

This example demonstrates what happens when values are unhashable:

>>> x = {"a": []}
>>> y = {"b": []}
>>> dict(x.items() | y.items())
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
TypeError: unhashable type: "list"

Here"s an example where y should have precedence, but instead the value from x is retained due to the arbitrary order of sets:

>>> x = {"a": 2}
>>> y = {"a": 1}
>>> dict(x.items() | y.items())
{"a": 2}

Another hack you should not use:

z = dict(x, **y)

This uses the dict constructor and is very fast and memory-efficient (even slightly more so than our two-step process) but unless you know precisely what is happening here (that is, the second dict is being passed as keyword arguments to the dict constructor), it"s difficult to read, it"s not the intended usage, and so it is not Pythonic.

Here"s an example of the usage being remediated in django.

Dictionaries are intended to take hashable keys (e.g. frozensets or tuples), but this method fails in Python 3 when keys are not strings.

>>> c = dict(a, **b)
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
TypeError: keyword arguments must be strings

From the mailing list, Guido van Rossum, the creator of the language, wrote:

I am fine with declaring dict({}, **{1:3}) illegal, since after all it is abuse of the ** mechanism.

and

Apparently dict(x, **y) is going around as "cool hack" for "call x.update(y) and return x". Personally, I find it more despicable than cool.

It is my understanding (as well as the understanding of the creator of the language) that the intended usage for dict(**y) is for creating dictionaries for readability purposes, e.g.:

dict(a=1, b=10, c=11)

instead of

{"a": 1, "b": 10, "c": 11}

Response to comments

Despite what Guido says, dict(x, **y) is in line with the dict specification, which btw. works for both Python 2 and 3. The fact that this only works for string keys is a direct consequence of how keyword parameters work and not a short-coming of dict. Nor is using the ** operator in this place an abuse of the mechanism, in fact, ** was designed precisely to pass dictionaries as keywords.

Again, it doesn"t work for 3 when keys are not strings. The implicit calling contract is that namespaces take ordinary dictionaries, while users must only pass keyword arguments that are strings. All other callables enforced it. dict broke this consistency in Python 2:

>>> foo(**{("a", "b"): None})
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
TypeError: foo() keywords must be strings
>>> dict(**{("a", "b"): None})
{("a", "b"): None}

This inconsistency was bad given other implementations of Python (PyPy, Jython, IronPython). Thus it was fixed in Python 3, as this usage could be a breaking change.

I submit to you that it is malicious incompetence to intentionally write code that only works in one version of a language or that only works given certain arbitrary constraints.

More comments:

dict(x.items() + y.items()) is still the most readable solution for Python 2. Readability counts.

My response: merge_two_dicts(x, y) actually seems much clearer to me, if we"re actually concerned about readability. And it is not forward compatible, as Python 2 is increasingly deprecated.

{**x, **y} does not seem to handle nested dictionaries. the contents of nested keys are simply overwritten, not merged [...] I ended up being burnt by these answers that do not merge recursively and I was surprised no one mentioned it. In my interpretation of the word "merging" these answers describe "updating one dict with another", and not merging.

Yes. I must refer you back to the question, which is asking for a shallow merge of two dictionaries, with the first"s values being overwritten by the second"s - in a single expression.

Assuming two dictionaries of dictionaries, one might recursively merge them in a single function, but you should be careful not to modify the dictionaries from either source, and the surest way to avoid that is to make a copy when assigning values. As keys must be hashable and are usually therefore immutable, it is pointless to copy them:

from copy import deepcopy

def dict_of_dicts_merge(x, y):
    z = {}
    overlapping_keys = x.keys() & y.keys()
    for key in overlapping_keys:
        z[key] = dict_of_dicts_merge(x[key], y[key])
    for key in x.keys() - overlapping_keys:
        z[key] = deepcopy(x[key])
    for key in y.keys() - overlapping_keys:
        z[key] = deepcopy(y[key])
    return z

Usage:

>>> x = {"a":{1:{}}, "b": {2:{}}}
>>> y = {"b":{10:{}}, "c": {11:{}}}
>>> dict_of_dicts_merge(x, y)
{"b": {2: {}, 10: {}}, "a": {1: {}}, "c": {11: {}}}

Coming up with contingencies for other value types is far beyond the scope of this question, so I will point you at my answer to the canonical question on a "Dictionaries of dictionaries merge".

Less Performant But Correct Ad-hocs

These approaches are less performant, but they will provide correct behavior. They will be much less performant than copy and update or the new unpacking because they iterate through each key-value pair at a higher level of abstraction, but they do respect the order of precedence (latter dictionaries have precedence)

You can also chain the dictionaries manually inside a dict comprehension:

{k: v for d in dicts for k, v in d.items()} # iteritems in Python 2.7

or in Python 2.6 (and perhaps as early as 2.4 when generator expressions were introduced):

dict((k, v) for d in dicts for k, v in d.items()) # iteritems in Python 2

itertools.chain will chain the iterators over the key-value pairs in the correct order:

from itertools import chain
z = dict(chain(x.items(), y.items())) # iteritems in Python 2

Performance Analysis

I"m only going to do the performance analysis of the usages known to behave correctly. (Self-contained so you can copy and paste yourself.)

from timeit import repeat
from itertools import chain

x = dict.fromkeys("abcdefg")
y = dict.fromkeys("efghijk")

def merge_two_dicts(x, y):
    z = x.copy()
    z.update(y)
    return z

min(repeat(lambda: {**x, **y}))
min(repeat(lambda: merge_two_dicts(x, y)))
min(repeat(lambda: {k: v for d in (x, y) for k, v in d.items()}))
min(repeat(lambda: dict(chain(x.items(), y.items()))))
min(repeat(lambda: dict(item for d in (x, y) for item in d.items())))

In Python 3.8.1, NixOS:

>>> min(repeat(lambda: {**x, **y}))
1.0804965235292912
>>> min(repeat(lambda: merge_two_dicts(x, y)))
1.636518670246005
>>> min(repeat(lambda: {k: v for d in (x, y) for k, v in d.items()}))
3.1779992282390594
>>> min(repeat(lambda: dict(chain(x.items(), y.items()))))
2.740647904574871
>>> min(repeat(lambda: dict(item for d in (x, y) for item in d.items())))
4.266070580109954
$ uname -a
Linux nixos 4.19.113 #1-NixOS SMP Wed Mar 25 07:06:15 UTC 2020 x86_64 GNU/Linux

Resources on Dictionaries

5839

Answer #2

In your case, what you can do is:

z = dict(list(x.items()) + list(y.items()))

This will, as you want it, put the final dict in z, and make the value for key b be properly overridden by the second (y) dict"s value:

>>> x = {"a":1, "b": 2}
>>> y = {"b":10, "c": 11}
>>> z = dict(list(x.items()) + list(y.items()))
>>> z
{"a": 1, "c": 11, "b": 10}

If you use Python 2, you can even remove the list() calls. To create z:

>>> z = dict(x.items() + y.items())
>>> z
{"a": 1, "c": 11, "b": 10}

If you use Python version 3.9.0a4 or greater, then you can directly use:

x = {"a":1, "b": 2}
y = {"b":10, "c": 11}
z = x | y
print(z)
{"a": 1, "c": 11, "b": 10}

5839

Answer #3

An alternative:

z = x.copy()
z.update(y)

We hope this article has helped you to resolve the problem. Apart from Javascript Gets Element Height, check other circle-related topics.

Want to excel in Python? See our review of the best Python online courses 2022. If you are interested in Data Science, check also how to learn programming in R.

By the way, this material is also available in other languages:



Schneider Williams

San Francisco | 2022-11-30

Maybe there are another answers? What Javascript Gets Element Height exactly means?. I just hope that will not emerge anymore

Xu Jackson

Paris | 2022-11-30

Thanks for explaining! I was stuck with Javascript Gets Element Height for some hours, finally got it done 🤗. Checked yesterday, it works!

Ken Schteiner

Prague | 2022-11-30

Maybe there are another answers? What Javascript Gets Element Height exactly means?. I just hope that will not emerge anymore

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