The CSS border property is used to set the border of aHTMLelement. Its shorthand properties areborder-widthborder-colorandborder style.
Adding borders around elements on a web is an important feature of web design . The borders can be used to separate the content of a Web page, it makes it easier for people to interpret the information on the page.
The CSS border property is used to set the border of a HTML . The border property is an abbreviation for three sub-properties that define the style, color, and width of a border.
In this tutorial, we will discuss how to use the CSS border property, and how to use its subproperties, to design a border for an HTML element. By the end of this tutorial, you will be equipped with all the knowledge you need to design a border in CSS.
Introduction to Borders in CSS
As we mentioned above, the CSS border property is used to specify a border around a web element. For example, a border could be applied around an image, box or web form.
The border property is a shortcut for three used to apply specific styles subproperties to the border of an element. The abbreviated properties are:
border-width (specifies the thickness of a border)
border-color (specify border color)
border-style (specify border style)
When setting a border, you can use the border to specify the border or use each of its sub-properties. We will discuss both approaches in this article.
CSS sub-border properties
As stated above, there are three sub-properties used to define a border in CSS. We’ll go through each of these sub-properties and explore an example of how they work.
border- style Properties in CSS
The border style property is used to define the type of border to display on a web page. In other words, border-style determines the appearance of border lines on a web page: solid, dashed, dotted, etc.
There are 10 possible values ‚Äã‚Äãthat can be assigned to the border-style . Here’s what each of these styles looks like when applied to a box, along with a description of each style:
The CSS code we used to create these web elements is as follows:
As you can see, we used every potential value in our code for our border style
border-width Properties in CSS
border-width sets the width of a CSS border the width of a border can be set at using a CSS length value (pt, px, em, etc.) or using one of the three custom border -width . thin, medium and thickness
Suppose we want to create a solid border 5px around out of a box We could do it using this code:.
Click on em>
We created a border that uses the solid style and 5px thick.
border-color Properties in CSS
Like As you might expect, a property for color indicates the color. The border-color is used to define the color for a border in CSS. The color values ‚Äã‚Äãaccepted by the border-color are:
name (the name of a color, like blue)
HEX (a hexadecimal color value, like # 000)
HSL (an HSL color value, like hsl (10, 100%, 25%))
RGB (an RGB color value, like rgb (102, 222, 95))
Suppose we want to create a box with a 5px wide blue dotted border. You can do this using this code:
Multiple sub property values ‚Äã‚Äã< / h3. >
Each of the sub-properties of the CSS boundary can accept multiple values. This allows you to define custom borders for each border of an element in CSS
Here are the rules to keep in mind if you want to define custom borders for each border of an element in CSS: .
If you specify a value, the border style will be applied to all edges.
If you specify two values, the following order will be used:.
top and bottom, left and right
If you specify three values, the following order will be used:
up, right and left, down
If you specify four values, the following order will be used:
top, right, bottom, left
Suppose we want to create a border with a solid top and bottom and a left and right dashed line. We could use the following code to do this:
Click height =" 24 "class =" wp-image-13930 "style =" width: 24px; "src =" https://744025.smushcdn.com /1245953/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/iconfinder_play-circle-outline_326584.png?lossy=1&strip=1&webp=1 "alt =" Image of the button "Execute code", a triangle in a circle "srcset =" https: //744025.smushcdn.com/1245953/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/iconfinder_play-circle-outline_326584-20x20. PNG? Lossy = 1 & band = 1 & webp = 1 20w, https: // 744025. smushcdn.com/1245953/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/iconfinder_play-circle-outline_326584.png?lossy=1&strip = 1 & webp = 1 24w "size =" (max- width: 24px) 100vw, 24px "> in the code editor above to see the output of our code
in our code, we create a combined modified border by specifying two styles of border.This element uses the dotted border style on the left and right edges and solid styling on the top and bottom of the item.
We would use the same approach if we wanted to change the border color or the width.
CSS Border Shortcut
There are three sub-CSS properties that can be used to define a border.
In the previous examples, we discussed how to use each of these sub-properties individually. However, you can specify all boundary sub-properties in a property. This will allow us to shorten our code.
The border property uses the following structure to define a CSS border:.
border-width ( optional)
the word Let we want to create a solid pink border of 5 pixels around a line of text. We could do it using this code:
in our code, you can. see that we were able to define our border on one line, instead of using three lines and each subproperty of the border.
Individual CSS Borders
Sub-properties and Border properties can also be applied to only one side of a web element. If you want to set the appearance of a specific border on a web element, you can use these properties:
left border [property]
border- bottom [ property]
the value of the property can be:
style (to set the border style )
color (to set the border color )
width (to set the border thickness )
empty (use shortcut to set the border)
properties and values ‚Äã‚Äãare easy to use and remember, but here is a list of all possible combinations of sub-property values:
left border style
left border color
left border width
right border style
right border color
right border width
border style top
color of top border
width of top border
style of bottom border
color of bottom border
width of bottom border
Suppose we want to create a text box with a solid border on the left that is 2 pixels wide and a dotted border at the top that is 5 pixels wide. We could use the following code to do this:
On the left of our box we have a solid border of 2 pixels, while the top has a 5-part dotted border. Using the individual border properties, we were able to specify how the border should appear on each border of the box.
The border property is used to create a border in CSS and has three sub-properties - style, color and width - used to customize each part of a border separately.
This tutorial explained, with some examples, how to use the border property and its three secondary properties to create a border in CSS. We also explored how to style each side of an element using individual border properties.
If you want to learn more about CSS borders, check out our other tutorials on how to implement border images, reduce edges, outlines and outlines, edge radius for rounded corners and aesthetically pleasing box shadow effect !
Removing white space around a saved image in matplotlib
I need to take an image and save it after some process. The figure looks fine when I display it, but after saving the figure, I got some white space around the saved image. I have tried the "tight" option for savefig method, did not work either. The code:
I cannot claim I know exactly why or how my “solution” works, but this is what I had to do when I wanted to plot the outline of a couple of aerofoil sections — without white margins — to a PDF file.
(Note that I used matplotlib inside an IPython notebook, with the -pylab flag.)
I have tried to deactivate different parts of this, but this always lead to a white margin somewhere. You may even have modify this to keep fat lines near the limits of the figure from being shaved by the lack of margins.
How to do a scatter plot with empty circles in Python?
In Python, with Matplotlib, how can a scatter plot with empty circles be plotted? The goal is to draw empty circles around some of the colored disks already plotted by scatter(), so as to highlight them, ideally without having to redraw the colored circles.
surprisingly I didn"t find a straight-forward description on how to draw a circle with matplotlib.pyplot (please no pylab) taking as input center (x,y) and radius r. I tried some variants of this:
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
# here must be something like circle.plot() or not?
... but still didn"t get it working.
You need to add it to an axes. A Circle is a subclass of an Patch, and an axes has an add_patch method. (You can also use add_artist but it"s not recommended.)
Here"s an example of doing this:
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
circle1 = plt.Circle((0, 0), 0.2, color="r")
circle2 = plt.Circle((0.5, 0.5), 0.2, color="blue")
circle3 = plt.Circle((1, 1), 0.2, color="g", clip_on=False)
fig, ax = plt.subplots() # note we must use plt.subplots, not plt.subplot
# (or if you have an existing figure)
# fig = plt.gcf()
# ax = fig.gca()
This results in the following figure:
The first circle is at the origin, but by default clip_on is True, so the circle is clipped when ever it extends beyond the axes. The third (green) circle shows what happens when you don"t clip the Artist. It extends beyond the axes (but not beyond the figure, ie the figure size is not automatically adjusted to plot all of your artists).
The units for x, y and radius correspond to data units by default. In this case, I didn"t plot anything on my axes (fig.gca() returns the current axes), and since the limits have never been set, they defaults to an x and y range from 0 to 1.
Here"s a continuation of the example, showing how units matter:
circle1 = plt.Circle((0, 0), 2, color="r")
# now make a circle with no fill, which is good for hi-lighting key results
circle2 = plt.Circle((5, 5), 0.5, color="b", fill=False)
circle3 = plt.Circle((10, 10), 2, color="g", clip_on=False)
ax = plt.gca()
ax.cla() # clear things for fresh plot
# change default range so that new circles will work
# some data
ax.plot(range(11), "o", color="black")
# key data point that we are encircling
ax.plot((5), (5), "o", color="y")
which results in:
You can see how I set the fill of the 2nd circle to False, which is useful for encircling key results (like my yellow data point).
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