Complex numbers in python

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Are complex numbers a supported data-type in python? If so, how do you use them?

Answer rating: 223

In python, you can put ‘j’ or ‘J’ after a number to make it imaginary, so you can write complex literals easily:

>>> 1j
1j
>>> 1J
1j
>>> 1j * 1j
(-1+0j)

The ‘j’ suffix comes from electrical engineering, where the variable ‘i’ is usually used for current. (Reasoning found here.)

The type of a complex number is complex, and you can use the type as a constructor if you prefer:

>>> complex(2,3)
(2+3j)

A complex number has some built-in accessors:

>>> z = 2+3j
>>> z.real
2.0
>>> z.imag
3.0
>>> z.conjugate()
(2-3j)

Several built-in functions support complex numbers:

>>> abs(3 + 4j)
5.0
>>> pow(3 + 4j, 2)
(-7+24j)

The standard module cmath has more functions that handle complex numbers:

>>> import cmath
>>> cmath.sin(2 + 3j)
(9.15449914691143-4.168906959966565j)




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