# Speed comparison with Project Euler: C vs Python vs Erlang vs Haskell

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I have taken Problem #12 from Project Euler as a programming exercise and to compare my (surely not optimal) implementations in C, Python, Erlang and Haskell. In order to get some higher execution times, I search for the first triangle number with more than 1000 divisors instead of 500 as stated in the original problem.

The result is the following:

C:

``````[email protected]:~/erlang\$ gcc -lm -o euler12.bin euler12.c
[email protected]:~/erlang\$ time ./euler12.bin
842161320

real    0m11.074s
user    0m11.070s
sys 0m0.000s
``````

Python:

``````[email protected]:~/erlang\$ time ./euler12.py
842161320

real    1m16.632s
user    1m16.370s
sys 0m0.250s
``````

Python with PyPy:

``````[email protected]:~/Downloads/pypy-c-jit-43780-b590cf6de419-linux64/bin\$ time ./pypy /home/lorenzo/erlang/euler12.py
842161320

real    0m13.082s
user    0m13.050s
sys 0m0.020s
``````

Erlang:

``````[email protected]:~/erlang\$ erlc euler12.erl
[email protected]:~/erlang\$ time erl -s euler12 solve
Erlang R13B03 (erts-5.7.4) [source] [64-bit] [smp:4:4] [rq:4] [async-threads:0] [hipe] [kernel-poll:false]

Eshell V5.7.4  (abort with ^G)
1> 842161320

real    0m48.259s
user    0m48.070s
sys 0m0.020s
``````

``````[email protected]:~/erlang\$ ghc euler12.hs -o euler12.hsx
[1 of 1] Compiling Main             ( euler12.hs, euler12.o )
[email protected]:~/erlang\$ time ./euler12.hsx
842161320

real    2m37.326s
user    2m37.240s
sys 0m0.080s
``````

Summary:

• C: 100%
• Python: 692% (118% with PyPy)
• Erlang: 436% (135% thanks to RichardC)

I suppose that C has a big advantage as it uses long for the calculations and not arbitrary length integers as the other three. Also it doesn"t need to load a runtime first (Do the others?).

Question 1: Do Erlang, Python and Haskell lose speed due to using arbitrary length integers or don"t they as long as the values are less than `MAXINT`?

Question 2: Why is Haskell so slow? Is there a compiler flag that turns off the brakes or is it my implementation? (The latter is quite probable as Haskell is a book with seven seals to me.)

Question 3: Can you offer me some hints how to optimize these implementations without changing the way I determine the factors? Optimization in any way: nicer, faster, more "native" to the language.

EDIT:

Question 4: Do my functional implementations permit LCO (last call optimization, a.k.a tail recursion elimination) and hence avoid adding unnecessary frames onto the call stack?

I really tried to implement the same algorithm as similar as possible in the four languages, although I have to admit that my Haskell and Erlang knowledge is very limited.

Source codes used:

``````#include <stdio.h>
#include <math.h>

int factorCount (long n)
{
double square = sqrt (n);
int isquare = (int) square;
int count = isquare == square ? -1 : 0;
long candidate;
for (candidate = 1; candidate <= isquare; candidate ++)
if (0 == n % candidate) count += 2;
return count;
}

int main ()
{
long triangle = 1;
int index = 1;
while (factorCount (triangle) < 1001)
{
index ++;
triangle += index;
}
printf ("%ld
", triangle);
}
``````

``````#! /usr/bin/env python3.2

import math

def factorCount (n):
square = math.sqrt (n)
isquare = int (square)
count = -1 if isquare == square else 0
for candidate in range (1, isquare + 1):
if not n % candidate: count += 2
return count

triangle = 1
index = 1
while factorCount (triangle) < 1001:
index += 1
triangle += index

print (triangle)
``````

``````-module (euler12).
-compile (export_all).

factorCount (Number) -> factorCount (Number, math:sqrt (Number), 1, 0).

factorCount (_, Sqrt, Candidate, Count) when Candidate > Sqrt -> Count;

factorCount (_, Sqrt, Candidate, Count) when Candidate == Sqrt -> Count + 1;

factorCount (Number, Sqrt, Candidate, Count) ->
case Number rem Candidate of
0 -> factorCount (Number, Sqrt, Candidate + 1, Count + 2);
_ -> factorCount (Number, Sqrt, Candidate + 1, Count)
end.

nextTriangle (Index, Triangle) ->
Count = factorCount (Triangle),
if
Count > 1000 -> Triangle;
true -> nextTriangle (Index + 1, Triangle + Index + 1)
end.

solve () ->
io:format ("~p~n", [nextTriangle (1, 1) ] ),
halt (0).
``````

``````factorCount number = factorCount" number isquare 1 0 - (fromEnum \$ square == fromIntegral isquare)
where square = sqrt \$ fromIntegral number
isquare = floor square

factorCount" number sqrt candidate count
| fromIntegral candidate > sqrt = count
| number ’mod’ candidate == 0 = factorCount" number sqrt (candidate + 1) (count + 2)
| otherwise = factorCount" number sqrt (candidate + 1) count

nextTriangle index triangle
| factorCount triangle > 1000 = triangle
| otherwise = nextTriangle (index + 1) (triangle + index + 1)

main = print \$ nextTriangle 1 1
``````

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We hope this article has helped you to resolve the problem. Apart from Speed comparison with Project Euler: C vs Python vs Erlang vs Haskell, check other __main__ Python module-related topics.

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Carlo Innsbruck

Boston | 2023-02-01

Ev PHP module is always a bit confusing 😭 Speed comparison with Project Euler: C vs Python vs Erlang vs Haskell is not the only problem I encountered. I just hope that will not emerge anymore

Schneider Williams

Massachussetts | 2023-02-01

os Python module is always a bit confusing 😭 Speed comparison with Project Euler: C vs Python vs Erlang vs Haskell is not the only problem I encountered. I am just not quite sure it is the best method

Manuel Jackson

London | 2023-02-01

Thanks for explaining! I was stuck with Speed comparison with Project Euler: C vs Python vs Erlang vs Haskell for some hours, finally got it done 🤗. Will use it in my bachelor thesis

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