Show the progress of a Python multiprocessing pool imap_unordered call?

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I have a script that"s successfully doing a multiprocessing Pool set of tasks with a imap_unordered() call:

p = multiprocessing.Pool()
rs = p.imap_unordered(do_work, xrange(num_tasks))
p.close() # No more work
p.join() # Wait for completion

However, my num_tasks is around 250,000, and so the join() locks the main thread for 10 seconds or so, and I"d like to be able to echo out to the command line incrementally to show the main process isn"t locked. Something like:

p = multiprocessing.Pool()
rs = p.imap_unordered(do_work, xrange(num_tasks))
p.close() # No more work
while (True):
  remaining = rs.tasks_remaining() # How many of the map call haven"t been done yet?
  if (remaining == 0): break # Jump out of while loop
  print("Waiting for", remaining, "tasks to complete...")
  time.sleep(2)

Is there a method for the result object or the pool itself that indicates the number of tasks remaining? I tried using a multiprocessing.Value object as a counter (do_work calls a counter.value += 1 action after doing its task), but the counter only gets to ~85% of the total value before stopping incrementing.

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Show the progress of a Python multiprocessing pool imap_unordered call? around: Questions

Removing white space around a saved image in matplotlib

2 answers

I need to take an image and save it after some process. The figure looks fine when I display it, but after saving the figure, I got some white space around the saved image. I have tried the "tight" option for savefig method, did not work either. The code:

  import matplotlib.image as mpimg
  import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

  fig = plt.figure(1)
  img = mpimg.imread(path)
  plt.imshow(img)
  ax=fig.add_subplot(1,1,1)

  extent = ax.get_window_extent().transformed(fig.dpi_scale_trans.inverted())
  plt.savefig("1.png", bbox_inches=extent)

  plt.axis("off") 
  plt.show()

I am trying to draw a basic graph by using NetworkX on a figure and save it. I realized that without a graph it works, but when added a graph I get white space around the saved image;

import matplotlib.image as mpimg
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import networkx as nx

G = nx.Graph()
G.add_node(1)
G.add_node(2)
G.add_node(3)
G.add_edge(1,3)
G.add_edge(1,2)
pos = {1:[100,120], 2:[200,300], 3:[50,75]}

fig = plt.figure(1)
img = mpimg.imread("image.jpg")
plt.imshow(img)
ax=fig.add_subplot(1,1,1)

nx.draw(G, pos=pos)

extent = ax.get_window_extent().transformed(fig.dpi_scale_trans.inverted())
plt.savefig("1.png", bbox_inches = extent)

plt.axis("off") 
plt.show()
228

Answer #1

You can remove the white space padding by setting bbox_inches="tight" in savefig:

plt.savefig("test.png",bbox_inches="tight")

You"ll have to put the argument to bbox_inches as a string, perhaps this is why it didn"t work earlier for you.


Possible duplicates:

Matplotlib plots: removing axis, legends and white spaces

How to set the margins for a matplotlib figure?

Reduce left and right margins in matplotlib plot

228

Answer #2

I cannot claim I know exactly why or how my “solution” works, but this is what I had to do when I wanted to plot the outline of a couple of aerofoil sections — without white margins — to a PDF file. (Note that I used matplotlib inside an IPython notebook, with the -pylab flag.)

plt.gca().set_axis_off()
plt.subplots_adjust(top = 1, bottom = 0, right = 1, left = 0, 
            hspace = 0, wspace = 0)
plt.margins(0,0)
plt.gca().xaxis.set_major_locator(plt.NullLocator())
plt.gca().yaxis.set_major_locator(plt.NullLocator())
plt.savefig("filename.pdf", bbox_inches = "tight",
    pad_inches = 0)

I have tried to deactivate different parts of this, but this always lead to a white margin somewhere. You may even have modify this to keep fat lines near the limits of the figure from being shaved by the lack of margins.

Why is it string.join(list) instead of list.join(string)?

5 answers

Evan Fosmark By Evan Fosmark

This has always confused me. It seems like this would be nicer:

my_list = ["Hello", "world"]
print(my_list.join("-"))
# Produce: "Hello-world"

Than this:

my_list = ["Hello", "world"]
print("-".join(my_list))
# Produce: "Hello-world"

Is there a specific reason it is like this?

1906

Answer #1

It"s because any iterable can be joined (e.g, list, tuple, dict, set), but its contents and the "joiner" must be strings.

For example:

"_".join(["welcome", "to", "stack", "overflow"])
"_".join(("welcome", "to", "stack", "overflow"))
"welcome_to_stack_overflow"

Using something other than strings will raise the following error:

TypeError: sequence item 0: expected str instance, int found

1906

Answer #2

This was discussed in the String methods... finally thread in the Python-Dev achive, and was accepted by Guido. This thread began in Jun 1999, and str.join was included in Python 1.6 which was released in Sep 2000 (and supported Unicode). Python 2.0 (supported str methods including join) was released in Oct 2000.

  • There were four options proposed in this thread:
    • str.join(seq)
    • seq.join(str)
    • seq.reduce(str)
    • join as a built-in function
  • Guido wanted to support not only lists and tuples, but all sequences/iterables.
  • seq.reduce(str) is difficult for newcomers.
  • seq.join(str) introduces unexpected dependency from sequences to str/unicode.
  • join() as a built-in function would support only specific data types. So using a built-in namespace is not good. If join() supports many datatypes, creating an optimized implementation would be difficult, if implemented using the __add__ method then it would ve O(n¬≤).
  • The separator string (sep) should not be omitted. Explicit is better than implicit.

Here are some additional thoughts (my own, and my friend"s):

  • Unicode support was coming, but it was not final. At that time UTF-8 was the most likely about to replace UCS2/4. To calculate total buffer length of UTF-8 strings it needs to know character coding rule.
  • At that time, Python had already decided on a common sequence interface rule where a user could create a sequence-like (iterable) class. But Python didn"t support extending built-in types until 2.2. At that time it was difficult to provide basic iterable class (which is mentioned in another comment).

Guido"s decision is recorded in a historical mail, deciding on str.join(seq):

Funny, but it does seem right! Barry, go for it...
Guido van Rossum

1906

Answer #3

Because the join() method is in the string class, instead of the list class?

I agree it looks funny.

See http://www.faqs.org/docs/diveintopython/odbchelper_join.html:

Historical note. When I first learned Python, I expected join to be a method of a list, which would take the delimiter as an argument. Lots of people feel the same way, and there’s a story behind the join method. Prior to Python 1.6, strings didn’t have all these useful methods. There was a separate string module which contained all the string functions; each function took a string as its first argument. The functions were deemed important enough to put onto the strings themselves, which made sense for functions like lower, upper, and split. But many hard-core Python programmers objected to the new join method, arguing that it should be a method of the list instead, or that it shouldn’t move at all but simply stay a part of the old string module (which still has lots of useful stuff in it). I use the new join method exclusively, but you will see code written either way, and if it really bothers you, you can use the old string.join function instead.

--- Mark Pilgrim, Dive into Python

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