How to configure logging to syslog in Python?

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I can"t get my head around Python"s logging module. My needs are very simple: I just want to log everything to syslog. After reading documentation I came up with this simple test script:

import logging
import logging.handlers

my_logger = logging.getLogger("MyLogger")
my_logger.setLevel(logging.DEBUG)

handler = logging.handlers.SysLogHandler()

my_logger.addHandler(handler)

my_logger.debug("this is debug")
my_logger.critical("this is critical")

But this script does not produce any log records in syslog. What"s wrong?

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How to configure logging to syslog in Python? around: Questions

Removing white space around a saved image in matplotlib

2 answers

I need to take an image and save it after some process. The figure looks fine when I display it, but after saving the figure, I got some white space around the saved image. I have tried the "tight" option for savefig method, did not work either. The code:

  import matplotlib.image as mpimg
  import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

  fig = plt.figure(1)
  img = mpimg.imread(path)
  plt.imshow(img)
  ax=fig.add_subplot(1,1,1)

  extent = ax.get_window_extent().transformed(fig.dpi_scale_trans.inverted())
  plt.savefig("1.png", bbox_inches=extent)

  plt.axis("off") 
  plt.show()

I am trying to draw a basic graph by using NetworkX on a figure and save it. I realized that without a graph it works, but when added a graph I get white space around the saved image;

import matplotlib.image as mpimg
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import networkx as nx

G = nx.Graph()
G.add_node(1)
G.add_node(2)
G.add_node(3)
G.add_edge(1,3)
G.add_edge(1,2)
pos = {1:[100,120], 2:[200,300], 3:[50,75]}

fig = plt.figure(1)
img = mpimg.imread("image.jpg")
plt.imshow(img)
ax=fig.add_subplot(1,1,1)

nx.draw(G, pos=pos)

extent = ax.get_window_extent().transformed(fig.dpi_scale_trans.inverted())
plt.savefig("1.png", bbox_inches = extent)

plt.axis("off") 
plt.show()
228

Answer #1

You can remove the white space padding by setting bbox_inches="tight" in savefig:

plt.savefig("test.png",bbox_inches="tight")

You"ll have to put the argument to bbox_inches as a string, perhaps this is why it didn"t work earlier for you.


Possible duplicates:

Matplotlib plots: removing axis, legends and white spaces

How to set the margins for a matplotlib figure?

Reduce left and right margins in matplotlib plot

228

Answer #2

I cannot claim I know exactly why or how my “solution” works, but this is what I had to do when I wanted to plot the outline of a couple of aerofoil sections — without white margins — to a PDF file. (Note that I used matplotlib inside an IPython notebook, with the -pylab flag.)

plt.gca().set_axis_off()
plt.subplots_adjust(top = 1, bottom = 0, right = 1, left = 0, 
            hspace = 0, wspace = 0)
plt.margins(0,0)
plt.gca().xaxis.set_major_locator(plt.NullLocator())
plt.gca().yaxis.set_major_locator(plt.NullLocator())
plt.savefig("filename.pdf", bbox_inches = "tight",
    pad_inches = 0)

I have tried to deactivate different parts of this, but this always lead to a white margin somewhere. You may even have modify this to keep fat lines near the limits of the figure from being shaved by the lack of margins.

log

Python"s equivalent of && (logical-and) in an if-statement

5 answers

delete By delete

Here"s my code:

def front_back(a, b):
  # +++your code here+++
  if len(a) % 2 == 0 && len(b) % 2 == 0:
    return a[:(len(a)/2)] + b[:(len(b)/2)] + a[(len(a)/2):] + b[(len(b)/2):] 
  else:
    #todo! Not yet done. :P
  return

I"m getting an error in the IF conditional.
What am I doing wrong?

934

Answer #1

You would want and instead of &&.

934

Answer #2

Python uses and and or conditionals.

i.e.

if foo == "abc" and bar == "bac" or zoo == "123":
  # do something

log

How do you get the logical xor of two variables in Python?

5 answers

Zach Hirsch By Zach Hirsch

How do you get the logical xor of two variables in Python?

For example, I have two variables that I expect to be strings. I want to test that only one of them contains a True value (is not None or the empty string):

str1 = raw_input("Enter string one:")
str2 = raw_input("Enter string two:")
if logical_xor(str1, str2):
    print "ok"
else:
    print "bad"

The ^ operator seems to be bitwise, and not defined on all objects:

>>> 1 ^ 1
0
>>> 2 ^ 1
3
>>> "abc" ^ ""
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
TypeError: unsupported operand type(s) for ^: "str" and "str"
794

Answer #1

If you"re already normalizing the inputs to booleans, then != is xor.

bool(a) != bool(b)

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