How can I time a code segment for testing performance with Pythons timeit?

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I"ve a python script which works just as it should, but I need to write the execution time. I"ve googled that I should use timeit but I can"t seem to get it to work.

My Python script looks like this:

import sys
import getopt
import timeit
import random
import os
import re
import ibm_db
import time
from string import maketrans
myfile = open("results_update.txt", "a")

for r in range(100):
    rannumber = random.randint(0, 100)

    update = "update TABLE set val = %i where MyCount >= "2010" and MyCount < "2012" and number = "250"" % rannumber
    #print rannumber

    conn = ibm_db.pconnect("dsn=myDB";"usrname";"secretPWD")

for r in range(5):
    print "Run %s
" % r        
    ibm_db.execute(query_stmt)
 query_stmt = ibm_db.prepare(conn, update)

myfile.close()
ibm_db.close(conn)

What I need is the time it takes to execute the query and write it to the file results_update.txt. The purpose is to test an update statement for my database with different indexes and tuning mechanisms.

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How can I open multiple files using "with open" in Python?

5 answers

I want to change a couple of files at one time, iff I can write to all of them. I"m wondering if I somehow can combine the multiple open calls with the with statement:

try:
  with open("a", "w") as a and open("b", "w") as b:
    do_something()
except IOError as e:
  print "Operation failed: %s" % e.strerror

If that"s not possible, what would an elegant solution to this problem look like?

788

Answer #1

As of Python 2.7 (or 3.1 respectively) you can write

with open("a", "w") as a, open("b", "w") as b:
    do_something()

In earlier versions of Python, you can sometimes use contextlib.nested() to nest context managers. This won"t work as expected for opening multiples files, though -- see the linked documentation for details.


In the rare case that you want to open a variable number of files all at the same time, you can use contextlib.ExitStack, starting from Python version 3.3:

with ExitStack() as stack:
    files = [stack.enter_context(open(fname)) for fname in filenames]
    # Do something with "files"

Most of the time you have a variable set of files, you likely want to open them one after the other, though.

open() in Python does not create a file if it doesn"t exist

5 answers

What is the best way to open a file as read/write if it exists, or if it does not, then create it and open it as read/write? From what I read, file = open("myfile.dat", "rw") should do this, right?

It is not working for me (Python 2.6.2) and I"m wondering if it is a version problem, or not supposed to work like that or what.

The bottom line is, I just need a solution for the problem. I am curious about the other stuff, but all I need is a nice way to do the opening part.

The enclosing directory was writeable by user and group, not other (I"m on a Linux system... so permissions 775 in other words), and the exact error was:

IOError: no such file or directory.

778

Answer #1

You should use open with the w+ mode:

file = open("myfile.dat", "w+")

Difference between modes a, a+, w, w+, and r+ in built-in open function?

5 answers

In the python built-in open function, what is the exact difference between the modes w, a, w+, a+, and r+?

In particular, the documentation implies that all of these will allow writing to the file, and says that it opens the files for "appending", "writing", and "updating" specifically, but does not define what these terms mean.

721

Answer #1

The opening modes are exactly the same as those for the C standard library function fopen().

The BSD fopen manpage defines them as follows:

 The argument mode points to a string beginning with one of the following
 sequences (Additional characters may follow these sequences.):

 ``r""   Open text file for reading.  The stream is positioned at the
         beginning of the file.

 ``r+""  Open for reading and writing.  The stream is positioned at the
         beginning of the file.

 ``w""   Truncate file to zero length or create text file for writing.
         The stream is positioned at the beginning of the file.

 ``w+""  Open for reading and writing.  The file is created if it does not
         exist, otherwise it is truncated.  The stream is positioned at
         the beginning of the file.

 ``a""   Open for writing.  The file is created if it does not exist.  The
         stream is positioned at the end of the file.  Subsequent writes
         to the file will always end up at the then current end of file,
         irrespective of any intervening fseek(3) or similar.

 ``a+""  Open for reading and writing.  The file is created if it does not
         exist.  The stream is positioned at the end of the file.  Subse-
         quent writes to the file will always end up at the then current
         end of file, irrespective of any intervening fseek(3) or similar.

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