# Python, Matplotlib, subplot: How to set the axis range?

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How can I set the y axis range of the second subplot to e.g. [0,1000] ? The FFT plot of my data (a column in a text file) results in a (inf.?) spike so that the actual data is not visible.

``````pylab.ylim([0,1000])
``````

has no effect, unfortunately. This is the whole script:

``````# based on http://www.swharden.com/blog/2009-01-21-signal-filtering-with-python/
import numpy, scipy, pylab, random

xs = []
rawsignal = []
with open("test.dat", "r") as f:
for line in f:
if line[0] != "#" and len(line) > 0:
xs.append( int( line.split()[0] ) )
rawsignal.append( int( line.split()[1] ) )

h, w = 3, 1
pylab.figure(figsize=(12,9))
pylab.subplots_adjust(hspace=.7)

pylab.subplot(h,w,1)
pylab.title("Signal")
pylab.plot(xs,rawsignal)

pylab.subplot(h,w,2)
pylab.title("FFT")
fft = scipy.fft(rawsignal)
#~ pylab.axis([None,None,0,1000])
pylab.ylim([0,1000])
pylab.plot(abs(fft))

pylab.savefig("SIG.png",dpi=200)
pylab.show()
``````

Other improvements are also appreciated!

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## Python, Matplotlib, subplot: How to set the axis range? filter: Questions

List comprehension vs. lambda + filter

5 answers

I happened to find myself having a basic filtering need: I have a list and I have to filter it by an attribute of the items.

My code looked like this:

``````my_list = [x for x in my_list if x.attribute == value]
``````

But then I thought, wouldn"t it be better to write it like this?

``````my_list = filter(lambda x: x.attribute == value, my_list)
``````

It"s more readable, and if needed for performance the lambda could be taken out to gain something.

Question is: are there any caveats in using the second way? Any performance difference? Am I missing the Pythonic Way‚Ñ¢ entirely and should do it in yet another way (such as using itemgetter instead of the lambda)?

957

Answer #1

It is strange how much beauty varies for different people. I find the list comprehension much clearer than `filter`+`lambda`, but use whichever you find easier.

There are two things that may slow down your use of `filter`.

The first is the function call overhead: as soon as you use a Python function (whether created by `def` or `lambda`) it is likely that filter will be slower than the list comprehension. It almost certainly is not enough to matter, and you shouldn"t think much about performance until you"ve timed your code and found it to be a bottleneck, but the difference will be there.

The other overhead that might apply is that the lambda is being forced to access a scoped variable (`value`). That is slower than accessing a local variable and in Python 2.x the list comprehension only accesses local variables. If you are using Python 3.x the list comprehension runs in a separate function so it will also be accessing `value` through a closure and this difference won"t apply.

The other option to consider is to use a generator instead of a list comprehension:

``````def filterbyvalue(seq, value):
for el in seq:
if el.attribute==value: yield el
``````

Then in your main code (which is where readability really matters) you"ve replaced both list comprehension and filter with a hopefully meaningful function name.

957

Answer #2

This is a somewhat religious issue in Python. Even though Guido considered removing `map`, `filter` and `reduce` from Python 3, there was enough of a backlash that in the end only `reduce` was moved from built-ins to functools.reduce.

Personally I find list comprehensions easier to read. It is more explicit what is happening from the expression `[i for i in list if i.attribute == value]` as all the behaviour is on the surface not inside the filter function.

I would not worry too much about the performance difference between the two approaches as it is marginal. I would really only optimise this if it proved to be the bottleneck in your application which is unlikely.

Also since the BDFL wanted `filter` gone from the language then surely that automatically makes list comprehensions more Pythonic ;-)

## Python, Matplotlib, subplot: How to set the axis range? filter: Questions

How do I do a not equal in Django queryset filtering?

5 answers

By MikeN

In Django model QuerySets, I see that there is a `__gt` and `__lt` for comparative values, but is there a `__ne` or `!=` (not equals)? I want to filter out using a not equals. For example, for

``````Model:
bool a;
int x;
``````

I want to do

``````results = Model.objects.exclude(a=True, x!=5)
``````

The `!=` is not correct syntax. I also tried `__ne`.

I ended up using:

``````results = Model.objects.exclude(a=True, x__lt=5).exclude(a=True, x__gt=5)
``````
784

Answer #1

You can use Q objects for this. They can be negated with the `~` operator and combined much like normal Python expressions:

``````from myapp.models import Entry
from django.db.models import Q

Entry.objects.filter(~Q(id=3))
``````

will return all entries except the one(s) with `3` as their ID:

``````[<Entry: Entry object>, <Entry: Entry object>, <Entry: Entry object>, ...]
``````

InsecurePlatformWarning: A true SSLContext object is not available. This prevents urllib3 from configuring SSL appropriately

3 answers

Tried to perform REST GET through python requests with the following code and I got error.

Code snip:

``````import requests
header = {"Authorization": "Bearer..."}
url = az_base_url + az_subscription_id + "/resourcegroups/Default-Networking/resources?" + az_api_version
r = requests.get(url, headers=header)
``````

Error:

``````/usr/local/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/requests/packages/urllib3/util/ssl_.py:79:
InsecurePlatformWarning: A true SSLContext object is not available.
This prevents urllib3 from configuring SSL appropriately and may cause certain SSL connections to fail.
For more information, see https://urllib3.readthedocs.org/en/latest/security.html#insecureplatformwarning.
InsecurePlatformWarning
``````

My python version is 2.7.3. I tried to install urllib3 and requests[security] as some other thread suggests, I still got the same error.

Wonder if anyone can provide some tips?

334

Answer #1

The docs give a fair indicator of what"s required., however `requests` allow us to skip a few steps:

You only need to install the `security` package extras (thanks @admdrew for pointing it out)

``````\$ pip install requests[security]
``````

or, install them directly:

``````\$ pip install pyopenssl ndg-httpsclient pyasn1
``````

Requests will then automatically inject `pyopenssl` into `urllib3`

If you"re on ubuntu, you may run into trouble installing `pyopenssl`, you"ll need these dependencies:

``````\$ apt-get install libffi-dev libssl-dev
``````

Dynamic instantiation from string name of a class in dynamically imported module?

3 answers

In python, I have to instantiate certain class, knowing its name in a string, but this class "lives" in a dynamically imported module. An example follows:

loader-class script:

``````import sys
class loader:
def __init__(self, module_name, class_name): # both args are strings
try:
__import__(module_name)
modul = sys.modules[module_name]
instance = modul.class_name() # obviously this doesn"t works, here is my main problem!
except ImportError:
# manage import error
``````

some-dynamically-loaded-module script:

``````class myName:
# etc...
``````

I use this arrangement to make any dynamically-loaded-module to be used by the loader-class following certain predefined behaviours in the dyn-loaded-modules...

222

Answer #1

You can use getattr

``````getattr(module, class_name)
``````

to access the class. More complete code:

``````module = __import__(module_name)
class_ = getattr(module, class_name)
instance = class_()
``````

As mentioned below, we may use importlib

``````import importlib
module = importlib.import_module(module_name)
class_ = getattr(module, class_name)
instance = class_()
``````

How to get all of the immediate subdirectories in Python

3 answers

I"m trying to write a simple Python script that will copy a index.tpl to index.html in all of the subdirectories (with a few exceptions).

I"m getting bogged down by trying to get the list of subdirectories.

184

Answer #1

``````import os
def get_immediate_subdirectories(a_dir):
return [name for name in os.listdir(a_dir)
if os.path.isdir(os.path.join(a_dir, name))]
``````

We hope this article has helped you to resolve the problem. Apart from Python, Matplotlib, subplot: How to set the axis range?, check other filter-related topics.

Want to excel in Python? See our review of the best Python online courses 2022. If you are interested in Data Science, check also how to learn programming in R.

By the way, this material is also available in other languages:

Olivia Krasiko

Abu Dhabi | 2022-12-10

Maybe there are another answers? What Python, Matplotlib, subplot: How to set the axis range? exactly means?. Will use it in my bachelor thesis

Julia Galleotti

Prague | 2022-12-10

Maybe there are another answers? What Python, Matplotlib, subplot: How to set the axis range? exactly means?. Will use it in my bachelor thesis

Chen Nickolson

Prague | 2022-12-10

iat is always a bit confusing 😭 Python, Matplotlib, subplot: How to set the axis range? is not the only problem I encountered. Will get back tomorrow with feedback

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