What do ellipsis […] mean in a list?

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I was playing around in python. I used the following code in IDLE:

p  = [1, 2]
p[1:1] = [p]
print p

The output was:

[1, [...], 2]

What is this […]? Interestingly I could now use this as a list of list of list up to infinity i.e.

p[1][1][1]....

I could write the above as long as I wanted and it would still work.

EDIT:

  • How is it represented in memory?
  • What"s its use? Examples of some cases where it is useful would be helpful.
  • Any link to official documentation would be really useful.

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What do ellipsis [...] mean in a list? around: Questions

Removing white space around a saved image in matplotlib

2 answers

I need to take an image and save it after some process. The figure looks fine when I display it, but after saving the figure, I got some white space around the saved image. I have tried the "tight" option for savefig method, did not work either. The code:

  import matplotlib.image as mpimg
  import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

  fig = plt.figure(1)
  img = mpimg.imread(path)
  plt.imshow(img)
  ax=fig.add_subplot(1,1,1)

  extent = ax.get_window_extent().transformed(fig.dpi_scale_trans.inverted())
  plt.savefig("1.png", bbox_inches=extent)

  plt.axis("off") 
  plt.show()

I am trying to draw a basic graph by using NetworkX on a figure and save it. I realized that without a graph it works, but when added a graph I get white space around the saved image;

import matplotlib.image as mpimg
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import networkx as nx

G = nx.Graph()
G.add_node(1)
G.add_node(2)
G.add_node(3)
G.add_edge(1,3)
G.add_edge(1,2)
pos = {1:[100,120], 2:[200,300], 3:[50,75]}

fig = plt.figure(1)
img = mpimg.imread("image.jpg")
plt.imshow(img)
ax=fig.add_subplot(1,1,1)

nx.draw(G, pos=pos)

extent = ax.get_window_extent().transformed(fig.dpi_scale_trans.inverted())
plt.savefig("1.png", bbox_inches = extent)

plt.axis("off") 
plt.show()
228

Answer #1

You can remove the white space padding by setting bbox_inches="tight" in savefig:

plt.savefig("test.png",bbox_inches="tight")

You"ll have to put the argument to bbox_inches as a string, perhaps this is why it didn"t work earlier for you.


Possible duplicates:

Matplotlib plots: removing axis, legends and white spaces

How to set the margins for a matplotlib figure?

Reduce left and right margins in matplotlib plot

228

Answer #2

I cannot claim I know exactly why or how my “solution” works, but this is what I had to do when I wanted to plot the outline of a couple of aerofoil sections — without white margins — to a PDF file. (Note that I used matplotlib inside an IPython notebook, with the -pylab flag.)

plt.gca().set_axis_off()
plt.subplots_adjust(top = 1, bottom = 0, right = 1, left = 0, 
            hspace = 0, wspace = 0)
plt.margins(0,0)
plt.gca().xaxis.set_major_locator(plt.NullLocator())
plt.gca().yaxis.set_major_locator(plt.NullLocator())
plt.savefig("filename.pdf", bbox_inches = "tight",
    pad_inches = 0)

I have tried to deactivate different parts of this, but this always lead to a white margin somewhere. You may even have modify this to keep fat lines near the limits of the figure from being shaved by the lack of margins.

What does the Ellipsis object do?

4 answers

While idly surfing the namespace I noticed an odd looking object called Ellipsis, it does not seem to be or do anything special, but it"s a globally available builtin.

After a search I found that it is used in some obscure variant of the slicing syntax by Numpy and Scipy... but almost nothing else.

Was this object added to the language specifically to support Numpy + Scipy? Does Ellipsis have any generic meaning or use at all?

D:workspace
umpy>python
Python 2.4.4 (#71, Oct 18 2006, 08:34:43) [MSC v.1310 32 bit (Intel)] on win32
Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.
>>> Ellipsis
Ellipsis
671

Answer #1

This came up in another question recently. I"ll elaborate on my answer from there:

Ellipsis is an object that can appear in slice notation. For example:

myList[1:2, ..., 0]

Its interpretation is purely up to whatever implements the __getitem__ function and sees Ellipsis objects there, but its main (and intended) use is in the numpy third-party library, which adds a multidimensional array type. Since there are more than one dimensions, slicing becomes more complex than just a start and stop index; it is useful to be able to slice in multiple dimensions as well. E.g., given a 4x4 array, the top left area would be defined by the slice [:2,:2]:

>>> a
array([[ 1,  2,  3,  4],
       [ 5,  6,  7,  8],
       [ 9, 10, 11, 12],
       [13, 14, 15, 16]])

>>> a[:2,:2]  # top left
array([[1, 2],
       [5, 6]])

Extending this further, Ellipsis is used here to indicate a placeholder for the rest of the array dimensions not specified. Think of it as indicating the full slice [:] for all the dimensions in the gap it is placed, so for a 3d array, a[...,0] is the same as a[:,:,0] and for 4d, a[:,:,:,0], similarly, a[0,...,0] is a[0,:,:,0] (with however many colons in the middle make up the full number of dimensions in the array).

Interestingly, in python3, the Ellipsis literal (...) is usable outside the slice syntax, so you can actually write:

>>> ...
Ellipsis

Other than the various numeric types, no, I don"t think it"s used. As far as I"m aware, it was added purely for numpy use and has no core support other than providing the object and corresponding syntax. The object being there didn"t require this, but the literal "..." support for slices did.

671

Answer #2

In Python 3, you can¹ use the Ellipsis literal ... as a “nop” placeholder for code that hasn"t been written yet:

def will_do_something():
    ...

This is not magic; any expression can be used instead of ..., e.g.:

def will_do_something():
    1

(Can"t use the word “sanctioned”, but I can say that this use was not outrightly rejected by Guido.)

¬π "can" not in {"must", "should"}

What do ellipsis [...] mean in a list?

4 answers

I was playing around in python. I used the following code in IDLE:

p  = [1, 2]
p[1:1] = [p]
print p

The output was:

[1, [...], 2]

What is this […]? Interestingly I could now use this as a list of list of list up to infinity i.e.

p[1][1][1]....

I could write the above as long as I wanted and it would still work.

EDIT:

  • How is it represented in memory?
  • What"s its use? Examples of some cases where it is useful would be helpful.
  • Any link to official documentation would be really useful.
201

Answer #1

This is what your code created

enter image description here

It"s a list where the first and last elements are pointing to two numbers (1 and 2) and where the middle element is pointing to the list itself.

In Common Lisp when printing circular structures is enabled such an object would be printed as

#1=#(1 #1# 2)

meaning that there is an object (labelled 1 with #1=) that is a vector with three elements, the second being the object itself (back-referenced with #1#).

In Python instead you just get the information that the structure is circular with [...].

In this specific case the description is not ambiguous (it"s backward pointing to a list but there is only one list so it must be that one). In other cases may be however ambiguous... for example in

[1, [2, [...], 3]]

the backward reference could either point to the outer or to the inner list. These two different structures printed in the same way can be created with

x = [1, [2, 3]]
x[1][1:1] = [x[1]]

y = [1, [2, 3]]
y[1][1:1] = [y]

print(x)
print(y)

and they would be in memory as

enter image description here

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