How to change plot background color?

StackOverflow

I am making a scatter plot in matplotlib and need to change the background of the actual plot to black. I know how to change the face color of the plot using:

fig = plt.figure()
fig.patch.set_facecolor("xkcd:mint green")

enter image description here

My issue is that this changes the color of the space around the plot. How to I change the actual background color of the plot?

Answer rating: 298

Use the set_facecolor(color) method of the axes object, which you"ve created one of the following ways:

  • You created a figure and axis/es together

    fig, ax = plt.subplots(nrows=1, ncols=1)
    
  • You created a figure, then axis/es later

    fig = plt.figure()
    ax = fig.add_subplot(1, 1, 1) # nrows, ncols, index
    
  • You used the stateful API (if you"re doing anything more than a few lines, and especially if you have multiple plots, the object-oriented methods above make life easier because you can refer to specific figures, plot on certain axes, and customize either)

    plt.plot(...)
    ax = plt.gca()
    

Then you can use set_facecolor:

ax.set_facecolor("xkcd:salmon")
ax.set_facecolor((1.0, 0.47, 0.42))

example plot with pink background on the axes

As a refresher for what colors can be:




matplotlib.colors

Matplotlib recognizes the following formats to specify a color:

  • an RGB or RGBA tuple of float values in [0, 1] (e.g., (0.1, 0.2, 0.5) or (0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 0.3));
  • a hex RGB or RGBA string (e.g., "#0F0F0F" or "#0F0F0F0F");
  • a string representation of a float value in [0, 1] inclusive for gray level (e.g., "0.5");
  • one of {"b", "g", "r", "c", "m", "y", "k", "w"};
  • a X11/CSS4 color name;
  • a name from the xkcd color survey; prefixed with "xkcd:" (e.g., "xkcd:sky blue");
  • one of {"tab:blue", "tab:orange", "tab:green", "tab:red", "tab:purple", "tab:brown", "tab:pink", "tab:gray", "tab:olive", "tab:cyan"} which are the Tableau Colors from the ‚ÄòT10‚Äô categorical palette (which is the default color cycle);
  • a ‚ÄúCN‚Äù color spec, i.e. "C" followed by a single digit, which is an index into the default property cycle (matplotlib.rcParams["axes.prop_cycle"]); the indexing occurs at artist creation time and defaults to black if the cycle does not include color.

All string specifications of color, other than “CN”, are case-insensitive.

Answer rating: 67

One method is to manually set the default for the axis background color within your script (see Customizing matplotlib):

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
plt.rcParams["axes.facecolor"] = "black"

This is in contrast to Nick T"s method which changes the background color for a specific axes object. Resetting the defaults is useful if you"re making multiple different plots with similar styles and don"t want to keep changing different axes objects.

Note: The equivalent for

fig = plt.figure()
fig.patch.set_facecolor("black")

from your question is:

plt.rcParams["figure.facecolor"] = "black"




Tutorials